This paper critically analyses the importance of risk management techniques in the war on terror. From the protection of borders to international financial flows, from airport security to daily financial transactions, risk assessment is emerging as the most important way in which terrorist danger is made measurable and manageable. However, we argue that the risk-based approach results in the displacement of risk onto marginal groups, while its effectiveness in the war on terror remains questionable.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Accenture digital forum, “US DHS to Develop and Implement US VISIT Program at Air, Land and Sea Ports of Entry,” 2004, available at www.digitalforum.accenture.com.
Accenture press release, “Government Security Contract to Help Make US Safer,” 2004, available at www.carers3.accenture.com/careers/global.aboutaccenture/careersnews/cn-usvisit.
Adey, P., “Secured and Sorted Mobilities: Examples from the Airport,” Surveillance and Society, 2004 (1: 4), 500–519.
Al-Suhaimi, J., “Demystifying Hawala Business,” The Banker, 2002, 152(914), 76–78.
Amoore, L., “Risk, Reward and Discipline at Work,” Economy and Society, 2004 (33: 2), 174–196.
Amoore, L. and P. Langley, “Ambiguities of Global Civil Society,” Review of International Studies, 2004 (30: 1), 89–110.
Andreas, P. and T. Snyder, (eds.) The Wall Around the West: State Borders and Immigration Controls in North America and Europe (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2000).
Appadurai, A., “Spectral Housing and Urban Cleansing: Notes on Millennium Mumbai,” Public Culture, 2000 (12: 3), 627–651.
Aufhauser, D.D., “Terrorist Financing: Foxes Run to Ground,” Journal of Money Laundering Control, 2003 (6: 4), 301–305.
Baker, T., “Liability and insurance after September 11: Embracing Risk meets the Precautionary Principle”, University of Connecticut School of Law Working Paper Series, 2002.
Beeson, A., “On the Home Front: A Lawyer's Struggle to Defend Rights After 9/11”, in R. Leone and G. Anrig (eds.), The War on Our Freedoms (New York: Public Affairs/Century Foundation, 2003).
Beck, U., “The Terrorist Threat: World Risk Society Revisited,” Theory, Culture & Society, 2002 (19: 4), 39–55.
Bester, H., L. de Koker and R. Hawthorne, “Access to Financial Services in South Africa,” Genesis Analytics, April, 2004, available at http://www.finmarktrust.org.za/documents/2004/April/FATFCaseStudy_2004.pdf.
Bigo, D., “Security and Immigration: Toward a Critique of the Governmentality of Unease,” Alternatives, 2002 (27), 63–92.
Brisbin, R., “Old Standards and New Practices of Governing: Federalism and Rights Paradigms and the Risk-Management Regime”, paper presented at the annual convention of the American Political Science Association, 2004, 2–5 September, 2004.
Business Week, “The Price of Protecting the Airways,” 2001, available at www.businessweek.com/print/technology/content/dec2001/tc2001124_0865.htm.
Business Week, “Welcome to Security Nation,” 2004a, 3887, p. 32.
Business Week, “Accenture Hits the Daily Double,” 2004b, 3891, p. 74.
Business Week Online, “Terror May be Your Portfolio's Security,” 16 August, 2004, www.buinsessweek.com/print/bwdaily/dnflash/aug2004/nf20040816_9987_db014.htm?chan=d,
Campbell, D., “With Pot and Porn Stripping Corn, America's Black Economy is Flying High,” The Guardian, 2 May, 2003, p. 3.
Campbell, D., “Introducing Del-Qaida,” The Guardian, 17 July, 2004, p. 17.
CIO Insight, “Beta,” August, 2004, 42, p. 22.
Chalfin, B., “Border Scans: Sovereignty, Surveillance and the Customs Service in Ghana,” Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power, 2004 (11), 397–416.
Clarke, R., “Dataveillance: Delivering 1984,” in L. Green and R. Guinery (eds.), Framing Technology: Society, Choice and Change (London: Routledge, 1994).
Coutin, S.B., Legalizing Moves: Salvadoran Immigrants' Struggle for US Residency (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000).
Coutin, S.B., B. Maurer and B. Yngvesson, “In the Mirror: The Legitimation Work of Globalization,” Law and Social Inquiry, 2002 (27: 4), 801–843.
De Genova, N.P., “Migrant Illegality and Deportability in Everyday Life,” Annual Review of Anthropology, 2002 (31), 419–447.
De Goede, M., “Repoliticising Financial Risk,” Economy and Society, 2004 (33: 2), 197–217.
De Goede, M., Virtue, Fortune and Faith: A Genealogy of Finance (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2005).
Department of Homeland Security, “DHs Announces Award of US VISIT Prime Contract to Accenture LLP,” 2004a, available at www.dhs.gov/dhspublic/display?theme=43&content.
Department of Homeland Security, “Transcript of Secretary of Homeland Security Tom Ridge at the Center for Transatlantic Relations at Johns Hopkins University,” 2004b, available at www.dhs.gov/dhspublic/display?theme=44&content=3994&print=true.
Department of Homeland Security, “Remarks by Secretary of Homeland Security Tom Ridge at the European Policy Centre,” 2005, available at http://www.dhs.gov/dhspublic/display?content=4293.
Doty, R.L., Anti-Immigrantism in Western Democracies: Statecraft, Desire and the Politics of Exclusion (London: Routledge, 2003).
Ewald, F., “Norms, Discipline and the Law,” in R. Post (ed.), Law and the Order of Culture (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990).
Forbes.com “Biometrics Beyond Terrorism,” 2004 available at http://www.forbes.com/2004/07/08/cx_pp_0708biometrics_ii_print.html.
Fox, P., “The Security Privilege,” Computerworld, 2004 (38: 23), 1.
Fox, W.J., Speech Before the Anti-Money Laundering Compliance Conference (New York: Securities Industry Association, 2004a), 4 March, available at http://www.fincen.gov/foxsia030404.pdf.
Fox, W.J., Statement Before the United States House of Representatives, Committee on Financial Services, 16 June, 2004b, available at http://www.fincen.gov/hfscommitteestatement061604.pdf.
FSA, Financial Services Authority, Reducing Money Laundering Risk: Know Your Customer and Anti-Money Laundering Monitoring, 2003, Discussion Paper 22, August, available at http://www.fsa.gov.uk/pubs/discussion/dp22.pdf.
Gillespie, J., Follow the Money: Tracing Terrorist Assets, Seminar on International Finance, Harvard Law School, 15 April, 2002, available at http://www.law.harvard.edu/programs/PIFS/pdfs/james_gillespie.pdf.
Heimer, C., “Insuring More, Ensuring Less: Private Regulation Through Insurance,” in T. Baker and J. Simon (eds.), Embracing Risk: The Changing Culture of Insurance and Responsibility (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002).
Heyman, J., “Class and Classification on the US-Mexican Border,” Human Organization, 2001 (60), 128–140.
Horst, C. and N. van Hear, “Counting the Cost: Refugees, Remittances and the ‘War against Terrorism,’” Forced Migration Review, 2002 (14), 32–34.
Kestelyn, J., “For Want of a Nail,” Intelligent Enterprise, 2002 (5: 7), 8.
Langley, P., The Everyday Life of Global Finance, IPEG working paper, British International Studies Association, 2002, available at http://www.bisa.ac.uk/groups/ipeg/papers/PaulLangley.pdf.
Larner, W. and W. Walters, “Introduction: Global Governmentality: Governing International Spaces,” in W. Larner and W. Walters (eds.), Global Governmentality: Governing International Spaces (London: Routledge, 2004).
Levene, T., “Why Rules Won't Wash on Money Laundering,” The Guardian Jobs and Money, 2003, 28 June, 2–3.
Levi, M., “Money Laundering and Its Regulation,” Annals of the AAPSS 2002 (582), 181–194.
Levi, M., “Following the Criminal and Terrorist Money Trails,” in P. C. van Duyne, K. von Lampe and J.L. Newell (eds.), Criminal Finances and Organising Crime in Europe (Nijmegen: Wolf Legal Publishers, 2003).
Levi, M. and D.S. Wall, “Technologies, Security, and Privacy in the Post-9/11 European Information Society,” Journal of Law and Society, 2004 (31: 2), 194–220.
Leyshon, A. and N. Thrift, “Lists Come Alive: Electronic Systems of Knowledge and the Rise of Credit-Scoring in Retail Banking,” Economy and Society, 1999 (28: 3), 434–466.
Lyon, D., Surveillance Society: Monitoring Everyday Life (New York: Routledge, 2001).
Lyon, D., Surveillance After September 11 (London: Polity, 2003a).
Lyon, D., (ed.) Surveillance as Social Sorting: Privacy, Risk, and Digital Discrimination (New York: Routledge, 2003b).
Lyon, D., “Identity Cards: Social Sorting by Database,” OII Issue Brief 2004, no. 3.
Maimbo, S.M., The Money Exchange Dealers of Kabul, Worldbank Working Paper, June, 2003, no. 13.
Malkin, L. and Y. Elizur, “The Dilemma of Dirty Money,” World Policy Journal, 2001, (Spring), 13–23.
Malkin, L. and Y. Elizur, “Terrorism's Money Trail,” World Policy Journal 2002 (Spring), 60–70.
Mantas, “Money Laundering –Keep it Clean,” Banking Technology, 30 November, 2003, available at http://www.mantas.com/NewsEvents/News/BankingTechnology113003.html.
Military and Aerospace Electronics, “Homeland Security Focus,” 2004 (15: 7), 4.
Naylor, R.T., “Wash-Out: A Critique of Follow-the-Money Methods in Crime Control Policy,” Crime, Law & Social Change, 1999 (32), 1–57.
Nelen, H., “Hit Them Where It Hurst Most?,” Crime, Law and Social Change, 2004 (41), 517–534.
O'Harrow, R., No Place to Hide (New York: Free Press, 2005).
O'Malley, P., “Uncertain Subjects: Risks, Liberalism and Contract,” Economy and Society, 2000 (29: 4), 460–484.
Passas, N., Informal Value Transfer Systems and Criminal Organisations: A Study into So-Called Underground Banking Networks, Dutch Ministry of Justice, 1999, available at http://www.minjust.nl:8080/b_organ/wodc/publications/ivts.pdf.
Passas, N., “Law Enforcement Challenges in Hawala-Related Investigations,” Journal of Financial Crime, 2004a (12: 2), 112–119.
Passas, N., “Indicators of Hawala Operations and Criminal Abuse,” Journal of Money Laundering Control, 2004b (8: 2), 168–172.
Peterson, V.S., A Critical Rewriting of Global Political Economy (London: Routledge, 2003).
Pieth, M., “Financing of Terrorism: Following the Money,” European Journal of Law Reform, 2002 (4: 2), 365–376.
Rose, N. and V. Mariana, “Governed by Law?,” Social and Legal Studies, 1998 (7: 4), 541–551.
Roth, J., D. Greenberg and S. Wille, National Commission on Terrorist Attack upon the United States, Monograph on Terrorist Financing, 2003, available at http://www.9–11commission.gov/staff_statements/911_TerrFin_Monograph.pdf
Sassen, S., The Global City: London, New York, Tokyo (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1991).
Stein, N., “The Fruits of Safety,” Fortune (Europe), 2004 (149: 11), 11.
Theil, S., “Gordon Woo: Calculus for Catastrophe,” Newsweek, 12 July, 2004, available at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/5352360/site/newsweek/
Thrift, N., “Movement-Space: The Changing Domain of Thinking Resulting from the Development of new Kinds of Spatial Awareness,” Economy and Society, 2004 (33: 4), 582.
US Department of the Treasury, A report to Congress in Accordance with Section 359 of the USA Patriot Act, November, 2002, availale at http://www.fincen.gov/hawalarptfinal11222002.pdf.
US Department of the Treasury, National Money Laundering Strategy 2003, 2003, available at http://www.ustreas.gov/offices/eotffc/publications/ml2003.pdf.
Valverde, M. and M. Mopas, “Insecurity and the Dream of Targeted Governance,” in W. Larner and W. Walters (eds.), Global Governmentality: Governing International Spaces (London: Routledge, 2004).
van der Ploeg, I., “Biometrics and the Body as Information: Normative Issues of the Socio-Technical Coding of the Body,” in D. Lyon (ed.), Surveillance as Social Sorting (London: Routledge, 2003).
van Duyne, P.C., K. von Lampe and N. Passas, Upperworld and Underworld in Cross-Border Crime (Nijmegen: Wolf Legal Publishers, 2002).
Walters, W., “Mapping Schengenland: Denaturalizing the Border,” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 2002 (20), 561–580.
Rights and permissions
About this article
Cite this article
Amoore, L., De Goede, M. Governance, risk and dataveillance in the war on terror. Crime Law Soc Change 43, 149–173 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10611-005-1717-8
- Risk Assessment
- Risk Management
- Management Technique
- International Relation
- Financial Transaction