The ever-evolving legal and regulatory landscape and resulting pressure on organizations to adapt and comply is just one of many factors that have turned compliance management into a crucial yet increasingly complicated activity. In recent years, numerous compliance challenges have been reported on and traditional approaches for managing legal and regulatory risks are increasingly being scrutinized. This paper provides an overview of the main challenges faced by commercial organizations and goes on to focus on what is referred to as a holistic, integrated approach to managing compliance. It explores the key characteristics and suggested benefits of the approach, as well as some factual and more substantive arguments in support of its claims and underlying logic. Borrowing from criminological theory, it further argues that despite the potential benefits of a holistic view of compliance, there equally remains room for caution.
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In order to illustrate the emerging convergence in these guidance materials, four documents in the area of anti-corruption compliance and one related to trade compliance were analysed and compared. The guidance documents relevant to anti-corruption compliance have been selected due to their prominence in the field, the extra-territorial reach and business impact of the underlying legal documents (e.g. the U.S. FCPA and UK Bribery Act) and/or the level of detail provided on how to design and implement a risk based compliance programme. The EU Commission guidance on internal compliance programmes for dual-use trade controls was included to illustrate commonalities in programme features across compliance domains.
On a more positive note, consensus appears to be growing on what constitutes a strong and effective compliance programme (see infra); and knowledge and notions derived from behavioural science, criminology and other established disciplines are slowly but surely finding their way to compliance literature and daily practice (see also Haugh 2017b; Soltes 2018).
As is often the case in the guidance materials issued by governments and regulators on the design and implementation of internal compliance programmes (see infra), and in line with the so-called ‘Three Lines of Defense’ model (IIA 2013), implementation problems and monitoring and reporting problems have been captured under separate headings. Examples of monitoring and reporting problems include a struggle to oversee business operations, and difficulties encountered with understanding reporting requirements and with meeting reporting deadlines.
Situational crime prevention is an approach in environmental criminology that aims to identify ways to modify the immediate setting in which crime takes place in order to affect assessments made by potential offenders about the risks, costs and benefits associated with committing particular offences (Clarke 1997: 5; Sidebottom 2010: 6). In its current representation, twenty-five situational techniques have been identified, listed under five basic strategies (see Clarke 2005: 46–47 for a comprehensive overview of techniques).
Diffusion of benefits, according to Johnson et al. (2012: 338), is the phenomenon ‘whereby the positive effects of an intervention extend beyond the operational range of intervention’.
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Annex A: Review Protocol
Annex A: Review Protocol
What challenges do commercial organizations face while trying to achieve or maintain legal and regulatory compliance?
Initial search to identify candidate publications
Further (in-depth) review and identification of compliance challenges
Analysis, coding and clustering of compliance challenges
Search criteria (initial search)
Initial search conducted on title and abstract (where available), using the following key words and search strings: ‘compliance + challenge(s)’, ‘compliance + innovation’, ‘compliance + management’, ‘compliance + managing’, ‘compliance + strategy’, ‘compliance + strategies’, ‘corporate + compliance’, ‘legal + compliance’, ‘regulatory + challenges’, ‘regulatory + compliance’
Searches conducted in Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar
Dealing with challenges faced by commercial organizations
Published in 2017, 2018 or 2019
Published in English
Further processing and coding
Following the initial search, candidate publications were uploaded in an academic literature database and repetitive entries were removed
Following an in-depth review, detail was stored on those publications withheld as containing relevant information to answer the research question
Compliance challenges were listed, coded and clustered
Review findings are reported on in Part Two of the paper
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Cite this article
Haelterman, H. Breaking Silos of Legal and Regulatory Risks to Outperform Traditional Compliance Approaches. Eur J Crim Policy Res (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10610-020-09468-x
- Legal and regulatory compliance
- Corporate compliance
- Compliance challenges
- Holistic compliance
- Compliance integration