In this section, we provide some examples of the intermediate results achieved when quantifying the different cost categories, so as to clarify how the methodology is applied. Additional information can be found in Author's own estimations.
Surveys Employed in the Estimations
The Enterprise Survey (World Bank)
This survey is carried out by the World Bank. Based on stratified random sampling, it collects information from formal and private companies on business climate and various associated matters. The ES has been implemented in 135 countries on five continents, in many cases for several years. It surveys owners and senior managers of companies. Sample sizes vary depending on the country.
National Urban Survey of Public Safety-Chile (Interior Ministry)
This is a survey with a probabilistic sampling with three-stage clustering, administered by the National Institute of Statistics of Chile, applied face to face, to people over 15 years old. In 2010, the survey was applied to 25,933 people, representing 11,593,139 inhabitants. Apart from providing information about general victimisation of households the survey provides data on the following crimes: burglary in the house, robbery by surprise on people, robbery with individual violence, theft, injury, theft of vehicles and theft from vehicles.
Victimisation Survey-Costa Rica (Demoscopia)
The survey applied stratified random sampling, with multistage selection, distributed proportionally to the population size of the regions of the country, with a maximum error of ± 2.8 % and a confidence range of 95 %. The sample included 1200 households representative of 1,266,418 households and 2,327,400 people in the Costa Rican population.
Victimisation survey-Honduras (Demoscopia)
This survey applied stratified random sampling, with multistage selection, proportionally distributed in 16 departments and their respective municipalities. The sample size is 1111 households. The maximum sampling error is 2.99 %, with a confidence range of 95 %.
National Victimisation Survey-Paraguay (General Directorate of Statistics, Surveys and Censuses)
The methodology used was based on the International Victimization Survey of the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and was conducted under an interagency cooperation agreement between the Ministry of Interior, the Secretariat of Women’s Affairs of the Office of the President, the UNDP, the United Nations Fund for the Development of Women and the Spanish Agency for International Cooperation for Development, besides the General Directorate of Statistics, Surveys and Censuses. The sample is obtained by random selection of households, whereas answers are provided by any member of the household over 15 years old. The survey, whose sample size is 3500 households, is representative of the 15 departments and of both rural and urban areas.
Victimisation Survey-Uruguay (Interior Ministry)
The universe is defined as all persons aged 17 years living in towns with more than 1000 inhabitants. A multistage probability sample of 1700 cases was used, stratified by geographical area. A random sample of these characteristics has a maximum error margin of +/− 2.4 % within a confidence range of 95 %.