The Relationship of Drug and Human Trafficking: A Global Perspective

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Notes

  1. 1.

    Data is based on the European Commission working document on monitoring and evaluating the EU Plan on combating and preventing trafficking in human beings. The figure cited here by the IOM for trafficking seems high unless it includes smuggled individuals who are vulnerable to be trafficked. According to Savona et al. (2003), the Albanians and Italians were those most often convicted of human trafficking.

  2. 2.

    Tina Frundt, a former trafficking victim, contradicted this popular wisdom stating that pimps are so greedy for money that they do not allow their trafficked girls and women to use drugs, “Human Trafficking in Our Region,” August 10, 2009, http://wamu.org/programskn/09/08/10.php (accessed August 18, 2009).

  3. 3.

    The author has interviewed NGOs that have worked with returning victims in Thailand, Russia. Moldova and other parts of Eurasia

  4. 4.

    The nature of the personnel was discussed with the author during her visit to Russia in mid-March 2007. The case had been investigated by the Federal Security Service of Russia.

  5. 5.

    This is based on interviews with Turkish and Kyrgyz law enforcement.

  6. 6.

    Information on this model is based on European analyses in government reports and interviews with law enforcement personnel from France, Italy, and the Netherlands, which receive a disproportionate share of the trafficking victims from Africa, as well as the limited academic research available on the topic. For further reading see Ebbe 1999; Carling 2005 and 2006; Aghatise 2004.

  7. 7.

    This is based on research presently being conducted by Peter Gastrow of the International Peace Academy (IPA) in New York. For more on this research see Gastrow 2011.

  8. 8.

    See the report on the website of the National Drug Intelligence Center, http://wn.com/National_Drug_Intelligence_ (accessed July 13, 2011).

  9. 9.

    Friedman is one of the few authors to write on this case that first linked drugs and human trafficking in a federal indictment. In the late 1990s when this investigation occurred, the Trafficking in Persons Act was not yet law. Therefore, there was no one who asked the Russian speaking undercover agent to find the human trafficking. But the extensive bruises on the strippers’ bodies as well as his conversations with the women who worked in the club revealed that the women were not voluntarily working in the club but were victims of human trafficking. This fact was mentioned in the charges but did not figure in the prosecutor’s case presented in court. The author conducted interviews with the undercover agent, the prosecutor and examined the court record.

  10. 10.

    Thomas Stack, Montgomery County Police Department, Maryland, presentation on investigating human trafficking crimes in Washington Metropolitan area, American University, Washington, D.C., November 6, 2006, subsequently excerpted in Shared Hope International (2007), Demand, 88--89.

  11. 11.

    http://wamu.org/programskn/09/08/10.php (accessed June 20, 2008).

  12. 12.

    See U.S. of America vs. Charles Floyd Pipkins a.k.a. Sir Charles, Andrew Moore, Jr. a.ka. Batman, August 2, 2004, www.ca11.uscourts.gov/opinions/ops/200214306.pdf, accessed Feb. 29, 2012.

References

  1. “Sex workers forced to take harmful drug”. (2011, July 21). http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=195013 (accessed Feb. 21, 2012).

  2. Anthony, A. (2009). “Pakistan Rescues boys trained as Suicide Bombers,” July 28, 2009, http://www.reuters.com/article/2009/07/28/idUSISL90520 http://www.reuters.com/article/asiaCrisis/idUSISL90520 (accessed August 23).

  3. Aronowitz, A. (2009). Human Trafficking, Human Misery: The Global Trade in Human Beings. Westport, Ct. and London:Praeger.

  4. Arsovska, J., & Janssens, S. (2009). Policing and Human Trafficking: Good and Bad Practices. In C. Friesendorf (Ed.), Strategies Against Human Trafficking: The Role of the Security Sector (pp. 169–211). Vienna: National Defence Academy and Austrian Ministry of Defence and Sport.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Bales, K. (2004). Disposable People New Slavery in the Global Economy rev.ed. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Bosco, F., di Cortemiglia, V., & Serojitdinov, A. (2009). Human Trafficking Patterns. In C. Friesendorf (Ed.), Strategies Against Human Trafficking: The Role of the Security Sector (pp. 35–82). Vienna: National Defence Academy and Austrian Ministry of Defence and Sport.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Bruinsma, G. J. N., & Meershoek, G. (1997). Organized Crime and Trafficking in Women From Eastern Europe in the Netherlands. Transnational Organized Crime, 3(4), 105–118.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Carling, J. (2006) “Migration, Human Smuggling and Trafficking from Nigeria to Europe,” produced for IOM, http://www.prio.no/sptrans/1326102309/file48438_carling_2006_migration_human_smugglingand_traffiking_from_nigeria_to_europe.pdf (accessed July 17, 2009).

  9. Carling, J. (2005) “Trafficking in Women from Nigeria to Europe, Migration Information Source, July 1, 2005, http://www.prio.no/Research-and-Publication/Publication/?oid=59294, (accessed July 17, 2009).

  10. Cengiz, M. (2011) Turkish Organized Crime From Local to Global Saarbrücken, Germany: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller

  11. Centre pour l’égalité de la chance et la lutte contre le racisme, “La Traite et le traffic des ĕtre$ humain$: lutter avec des personnes et des ressources” Rapport annuel 2008.

  12. Chin, K. (1999). Smuggled Chinese and Clandestine Immigration to the United States. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Coalition to Stop the Used of Child Soldiers. (2008). Child Soldiers Global Report 2008 http://www.child-soldiers.org/library/global-reports, (accessedJuly 5, 2011).

  14. Danziger, R., Martens, J., & Guajardo, M. (2009) “Human Trafficking and Migration Management.,”. In: C. Friesendorf (Ed.), Strategies Against Human Trafficking: The Role of the Security Sector (pp. 261-98). Vienna: National Defence Academy and Austrian Ministry of Defence and Sport.

  15. Ebbe, O. (1999). “The Political-Criminal Nexus: The Nigerian Case,” in Trends in Organized Crime 4(3).

  16. Estes, R., & Weiner, N. (2002). The Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in the U.S., Canada and Mexico. Executive Summary, University of Pennsylvania.www.sp2.upenn.edu/restes/CSEC_Files/Exec_Sum_020220.pdf, (accessed July 3, 2011).

  17. FBI powerpoint, “Innocence Lost Initiative,” (accessed July 3, 2011).

  18. Friedman, R. (2000). Red Mafiya: How the Russian Mob Has Invaded America. Boston: Little, Brown and Co.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Gastorw, P. (2011). Termites at Work: A Report on Transnational Organized Crime and State Erosion in Kenya: Comprehensive Research Findings New York: Internal Peace Institute.

  20. Gorceag, Lidia. (2004). “Major Aspects in Rehabilitation and Assistance of Victims of Trafficking in People During the Crisis,” in Good Practice in Assistance to Trafficked Persons http://www.lastrada.md/publicatii/ebook/bune3/eng/04.htm, accessed February 29, 2012.

  21. Holmes, L. (2009). “Corruption and Trafficking: Triple Victimisation?” in In: C. Friesendorf (Ed), Strategies Against Human Trafficking: The Role of the Security Sector, 83–114. Vienna: National Defence Academy and Austrian Ministry of Defence and Sport.

  22. Holmes, L. (2010) “Conclusions: quadruple victimisation?” In: L Holmes (Ed.), Trafficking and Human Rights: European and Asia-Pacific Perspectives, 175–205. C+{“.

  23. Human Rights Report, Rape for Profit. (1995). www.hrw.org/reports/1995/India.htm, accessed May 12, 2012.

  24. ILO, Report of the Director General (2005), A Global Alliance Against Forced Labor , www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/ilc/ilc93/pdf/rep-i-b.pdf, accessed Feb.29, 2012.

  25. Kaplan, D., & Dubro, A. (2003). Yakuza: Japan’s Criminal Underworld. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Kara, S. (2009). Sex Trafficking: Inside the Business of Modern Slavery. New York: Columbia University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Keefe, P. (2009). The Snakehead: An Epic Tale of the Chinatown Underworld and the American Dream. New York: Doubleday.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Lee, R., III. (1989). White Labyrinth: Cocaine and Political Power. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Leman, J., & Janssens, S. (2008). The Albanian and Post-Soviet Business of Trafficking Women for Prostitution: Structural developments and Financial Modus Operandi. European Journal of Criminology, 5(4), 445.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Lintner, B. (1994). Burma in Revolt: Opium and Insurgency since 1948. Boulder: Westview Press.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Llana, S. M. (2010). “Mexico Massacre: How the Drug War is Pushing Cartels into Human Trafficking,” http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Americas/2010/0830/Mexico-massacre-How-the-drug-war-is-pushing-cartels-into-human-trafficking, (accessed February 29, 2012,).

  32. Osmanaliev, K. (2005). “Developing Counter-Narcotics Policy in Central Asia: Legal and Political Dimensions,” Silk Road Paper, http://www.silkroadstudies.org/Silkroadpapers/Osmonaliev.pdf (accessed July 2, 2011).

  33. Paoli, L., Greenfield, V., & Reuter, P. (2009). The World Heroin Market:Can the Supply Be Cut? Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Phongpaichit, P., Phiriyarangsan, S., & Treerat, N. (1998). Guns, Girls, Gambling, Ganja: Thailand’s Illegal Economy and Public Policy. Chiang Mai: Silkworm.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Savona, E., Belli, R., Curtol, F., Decarli S., & Di Nicola, A. (2003). Tratta di persone a scopo di sfruttamento e traffiico di Migranti, November, Transcrime, http://transcrime.cs.unitn.it/tc/fso/transcrime_reports/07-Tratta_e_Traffico.pdf (accessed September 7, 2009).

  36. Shared Hope International. (2007). Demand: A Comparative Examination of Sex Tourism and Trafficking in Jamaica, Japan, the Netherlands, and the United States. Washington, D.C.: Shared Hope International.

    Google Scholar 

  37. IOM Tajikistan in cooperation with Sharq Scientific Research Center, “Labour Migration from Tajikistan, 2003,” www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/site/myjahiasite/…/Tajik_study_oct_03.pdf (accessed July 2, 2011).

  38. Shelley, L. (2010). Human Trafficking: A Global Perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Surtees, R. (2005). Second Annual Report on Victims of Trafficking in South-Eastern Europe, IOM, http://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/site/myjahiasite/shared/shared/mainsite/published_docs/studies_and_reports/second_annual05.pdf, accessed Feb. 29, 2012.

  40. Swecker, C. (2005). Statement, Federal Bureau of Investigation, “Innocence Lost Initiative,” http://www.fbi.gov/innolost/case_sum.htm (accessed July 1, 2008).

  41. Swecker, C. (2006). Statement, U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Homeland Security, Subcommittee on Management, Integration and Oversight, March 8.

  42. Thoumi, F. (1995). Political Economy and Illegal Drugs in Colombia. Boulder, Co.: L. Rienner.

  43. Trafficking in Persons Report. (2007). www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2007/ (accessed July 2, 2011).

  44. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2011, June 28). The Campaign to Rescue & Restore Victims of Human Trafficking: Fact Sheet: Sex Trafficking. http://www.acf.hhs.gov/trafficking/about/fact_sex.html (accessed February 21, 2012).

  45. U.S. of America vs. Charles Floyd Pipkins a.k.a. Sir Charles, Andrew Moore, Jr .a.ka. Batman, August 2, 2004, www.ca11.uscourts.gov/opinions/ops/200214306.pdf, accessed Feb. 29, 2012.

  46. United States Attorney General’s Report to Congress and Assessment of U.S. Government Activities to Combat Trafficking in Persons, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, 2009, 38.

  47. UNODC, World Drug Report. (2010). www.unodc.org/documents/…2010/World_Drug_Report_2010_lo-res.pdf ( accessed July 5, 2011).

  48. Varese, F. (2011). Mafias on the Move: How Organized Crime Conquers New Territories. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  49. Ward, H., & Day, S. (2006). What Happens to women who sell sex? Report of a unique occupational cohort. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 82, 413–17.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Williams, P. (2009). Combating Human Trafficking: Improving Governance Institutions, Mechanisms and Strategies. In C. Friesendorf (Ed.), Strategies Against Human Trafficking: The Role of the Security Sector (pp. 381–425). Vienna: National Defence Academy and Austrian Ministry of Defence and Sport.

    Google Scholar 

  51. Wola and Center Prodh. (2010). A Dangerous Journey through Mexico: Human Rights Violations against Migrants in Transit, http://www.wola.org/publications/a_dangerous_journey_through_mexico_human_rights_violations_against_migrants_in_transit, (accessed July 13, 2011).

  52. Wuebbel, M. (2004) “Demystifying Human Smuggling Operations Along the Arizona-Mexico Border,” http://www.american.edu/tracc/resources/publications/wuebbeo1.pdf (accessed June 29, 2007).

  53. Zimmerman, C. et al. (2003). The Health Risks and Consequences of Trafficking in Women and Adolescents Findings from a European Study. London School of Hygiene &Tropical Medicine, http://www.lshtm.ac.uk/php/ghd/docs/traffickingfinal.pdf, accessed Feb. 29, 2011.

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Louise Shelley.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Shelley, L. The Relationship of Drug and Human Trafficking: A Global Perspective. Eur J Crim Policy Res 18, 241–253 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10610-012-9175-1

Download citation

Keywords

  • Drugs
  • Human trafficking
  • Labor exploitation
  • Organized crime
  • Sex trafficking