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The Relationship of Drug and Human Trafficking: A Global Perspective

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  1. Data is based on the European Commission working document on monitoring and evaluating the EU Plan on combating and preventing trafficking in human beings. The figure cited here by the IOM for trafficking seems high unless it includes smuggled individuals who are vulnerable to be trafficked. According to Savona et al. (2003), the Albanians and Italians were those most often convicted of human trafficking.

  2. Tina Frundt, a former trafficking victim, contradicted this popular wisdom stating that pimps are so greedy for money that they do not allow their trafficked girls and women to use drugs, “Human Trafficking in Our Region,” August 10, 2009, (accessed August 18, 2009).

  3. The author has interviewed NGOs that have worked with returning victims in Thailand, Russia. Moldova and other parts of Eurasia

  4. The nature of the personnel was discussed with the author during her visit to Russia in mid-March 2007. The case had been investigated by the Federal Security Service of Russia.

  5. This is based on interviews with Turkish and Kyrgyz law enforcement.

  6. Information on this model is based on European analyses in government reports and interviews with law enforcement personnel from France, Italy, and the Netherlands, which receive a disproportionate share of the trafficking victims from Africa, as well as the limited academic research available on the topic. For further reading see Ebbe 1999; Carling 2005 and 2006; Aghatise 2004.

  7. This is based on research presently being conducted by Peter Gastrow of the International Peace Academy (IPA) in New York. For more on this research see Gastrow 2011.

  8. See the report on the website of the National Drug Intelligence Center, (accessed July 13, 2011).

  9. Friedman is one of the few authors to write on this case that first linked drugs and human trafficking in a federal indictment. In the late 1990s when this investigation occurred, the Trafficking in Persons Act was not yet law. Therefore, there was no one who asked the Russian speaking undercover agent to find the human trafficking. But the extensive bruises on the strippers’ bodies as well as his conversations with the women who worked in the club revealed that the women were not voluntarily working in the club but were victims of human trafficking. This fact was mentioned in the charges but did not figure in the prosecutor’s case presented in court. The author conducted interviews with the undercover agent, the prosecutor and examined the court record.

  10. Thomas Stack, Montgomery County Police Department, Maryland, presentation on investigating human trafficking crimes in Washington Metropolitan area, American University, Washington, D.C., November 6, 2006, subsequently excerpted in Shared Hope International (2007), Demand, 88--89.

  11. (accessed June 20, 2008).

  12. See U.S. of America vs. Charles Floyd Pipkins a.k.a. Sir Charles, Andrew Moore, Jr. a.ka. Batman, August 2, 2004,, accessed Feb. 29, 2012.


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Correspondence to Louise Shelley.

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Shelley, L. The Relationship of Drug and Human Trafficking: A Global Perspective. Eur J Crim Policy Res 18, 241–253 (2012).

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  • Drugs
  • Human trafficking
  • Labor exploitation
  • Organized crime
  • Sex trafficking