Domestic Violence: Research and Implications for Batterer Programmes in Europe

Abstract

The European Union is in the early stages of developing policy and practice guidelines for dealing with domestic violence offenders. There is a real danger, however, that that policy and practice is going to be shaped by political lobbyists rather than academic literature and evidence-based practice. Feminist advocates control the curriculum of domestic violence perpetrator programmes in the US and more recently in the UK and proscribe treatments that do not conform to their conceptualisation of domestic violence. Feminist advocates conceptualise domestic violence as unilateral male-to-female violence enacted to control and dominate women, supported by the patriarchal beliefs and systems of the wider society. Academic support for this theory is lacking, however, and scientifically sound evaluations find that programmes based on this philosophy have little or no effect on recidivism. Empirical literature suggests that domestic violence is not a unitary phenomenon and that perpetrators are a heterogeneous group whose treatment should match their crimingenic needs and risk.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Anderson, K. l. (2002). Perpetrator or victim? Relationships between intimate partner violence and well-being. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 64, 851–863.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Archer, J. (2000). Sex differences in aggression between heterosexual partners: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 651–680.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Archer, J. (2006). Cross-Cultural Differences in Physical Aggression Between Partners: A Social-Role Analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10, 133–153.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Archer, J., & Graham-Kevan, N. (2003).The association between beliefs about aggression and partner physical aggression. Aggressive Behaviour, 29, 41–54.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Archer, J., & Haigh, A. M. (1997a). Do beliefs about aggressive feelings and actions predict reported levels of aggression? British Journal of Social Psychology, 36, 83–105.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Archer, J., & Haigh, A. (1997b). Beliefs about aggression among male and female prisoners. Aggressive Behavior, 23, 405–415.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Archer, J., & Haigh, A. (1999). Sex differences in beliefs about aggression: Opponent’s sex and the form of aggression. British Journal of Social Psychology, 38, 71–84.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Ashcroft, J., Daniels, D. J., & Hart, C. V. (2003). Batterer intervention programmes: Where do we go from here? Office of Justice Programs National Institute of Justice http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij.

  9. Babcock, J. C., Green, C. E., & Robie, C. (2004). Does batterers’ treatment work? A meta-analytic review of domestic violence treatment outcome research. Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 1023–1053.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Babcock, J. C., Jacobson, N. S., Gottman, J. M., & Yerington, P. (2000). Attachment, emotional regulation, and the function of marital violence: Differences between secure, preoccupied, and dismissing violent and non-violent husbands. Journal of Family Violence, 15, 391–409.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Babcock, J. C., Miller, S., & Siard, C. (2003). Toward a typology of abusive women: Differences between partner-only and generally violent women in the use of violence. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 13, 46–59.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Campbell, A., Muncer, S., & Odber, J. (1997). Aggression and Testosterone: Testing a Bio-Social model. Aggressive Behavior, 23, 229–238.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Capaldi, D. M., Kim, H. K., & Shortt, J. W. (2004). Women’s involvement in aggression in young adult romantic relationships. In M. a. B. Putallaz, K. L. (Ed.), Aggression, antisocial behavior, and violence among girls (1991) New York: Guilford. Carrado, Follinstad, Wright, & Sebastian.

  14. Carrado, M., George, M. J., Loxam, E., Jones, L., & Templar, D. (1996). Aggression in British heterosexual relationships: A descriptive analysis. Aggressive Behavior, 22, 401–415.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Cavanaugh, M. M., & Gelles, R. J. (2005). The utility of male domestic violence offender typologies: New directions for research, policy, and practice. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 20, 155–166.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Chermack, S. T., Walton, M. A., Fuller, B. E., & Blow, F. C. (2001). Correlates of expressed and received violence across relationship type among men and women substance abusers. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 15, 140–151.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Coccaro, E. F. (1992). Impulsive aggression and central serotonergic function in humans: An example of a dimensional brain-behavior relationship. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 7, 3–12.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Daly, J. E., Power, T. G., & Gondolf, E. W. (2001). Predictors of batterer program attendance. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 16, 971–991.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Dasgupta, S. D. (1999). Just like men? A critical view of violence by women. In M. E. Shephard, & E. L. Pence (Eds.), Coordinating community responses to domestic violence (pp. 195–222). Sage Publications.

  20. Davies, B., Ralph, S., & Hawton, M. (1995). A study of client satisfaction with family court counselling in cases involving domestic violence. Family & Conciliation Courts Review, 33, 324–341.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. DeMaris, A. (1987). The efficacy of a spouse abuse model in accounting for courtship violence. Journal of Family Issues, 8, 291–305.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Dixon, L., & Browne, K. (2003). The heterogeneity of spouse abuse: a review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 8, 107–130.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Dobash, R. E., & Dobash, R. P. (1984). The nature and antecedents of violent events. British Journal of Criminology, 24, 269–287.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Dobash, R. P., & Dobash, R. E. (1979). Violence against wives: A case against patriarchy. New York: Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Dobash, R. P., & Dobash, R. E. (2004). Women's violence against an intimate male partner: Working on a puzzle. British Journal of Criminology, 44, 324–349.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Dobash, R. P., Dobash, R. E., Cavanagh, K., & Lewis, R. (1998). Separate and intersecting realities: A comparison of men and women’s accounts of violence against women. Violence Against Women, 4, 382–414.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Duluth (2006). Recent Research: Countering Confusion about the Duluth Model. Assessed on June 30th 2006 on http://www.duluth-model.org/.

  28. Dunning, E. (2002). Contemporary perspectives on batterers’ intervention, An exploratory study. Unpublished Manuscript.

  29. Dutton, D. G. (1994). Patriarchy and wife assault: The ecological fallacy. Violence and Victims, 9, 125–140.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Dutton, D. G. (2001). The Abusive Personality: Violence and Control in Intimate Relationships. Guilford Press.

  31. Dutton, G. D. (2006). Rethinking Domestic Violence. University of British Columbia Press.

  32. Dutton, D. G., & Starzomski, A. J. (1997). Personality predictors of the Minnesota Power and Control wheel. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 12, 70–82.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Eadie and Knoight (2002).

  34. Ehrensaft, M. K., Moffitt, T. E., & Caspi, A. (2004). Clinically abusive relationships in an unselected birth cohort: Men’s and women’s participation and developmental antecedents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113(2), 258–270.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. El-Zanty, F., Hussein, E. M., Shawky, G. A.,Way, A. A., & Kishor, S. (1995). Egypt demographic and health survey 1995. Cairo, Egypt: National Population Council.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Felson, R. B. (2002). Violence and gender reexamined. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Fiebert, M. S. (2006). References examining assaults by women on their spouses or male partners: an annotated bibliography. Retrieved on 12th July 2006 at http://www.csulb.edu/~mfiebert.

  38. Fiebert, M. S., & Gonzalez, D. M. (1997). College women who initiate assaults on their male partners and the reasons offered for such behavior. Psychological Reports, 80, 583–590.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Follingstad, D. R., Bradley, R. G., Helff, C. M., & Laughlin, J. E. (2002). A model for predicting dating violence; Anxious attachment, angry temperament, and the need for relational control. Violence and Victims, 17, 35–47.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Follingstad, D. R., Rutledge, L. L., Berg, B., Hause, E. S., & Polek, D. S. (1990). The role of emotional abuse in physically abusive relationships. Journal of Family Violence, 5, 107–120.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Foo, L., & Margolin, G. (1995). A multivariate investigation of dating aggression. Journal of Family Violence, 10, 351–377.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Gilchrist, E., Johnson, R., Takriti, R., Weston, S., Beech, T., & Kebbell, M. (2003). Domestic violence offender: Characteristics and offending related needs. Home Office Research Findings No 217. London: Home Office.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Giordano, P. C., Millhonin, T. J., Cernokovich, S. A., Pugh, M. D., & Rudolph, J. L. (1999). Deliquency, identity and womens’ involvement in relationship violence. Criminology, 37, 17–40.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Gondolf, E. W. (1988). Who are these guys? Toward a behavioural typology of batterers. Violence and Victims, 3, 187–203.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Graham, K., Plant, M., & Plant, M. (2004). Alcohol, gender and partner aggression: A general population study of British adults. Addiction Research and Theory, 12, 385–401.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Graham, K., Wells, S., & Jelley, J. (2002). The social context of physical aggression among adults. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 17, 64–83.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Graham-Kevan, N., & Archer, J. (2003a). Patriarchal terrorism and common couple violence: A test of Johnson’s predictions in four British samples. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18, 1247–1270.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Graham-Kevan, N., & Archer, J. (2003b). Physical aggression and control in heterosexual relationships: The effect of sampling procedure. Violence and Victims, 18, 181–198.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Graham-Kevan, N., & Archer, J. (2005a, July). Using Johnson’s domestic violence typology to classify men and women in a non-selected sample. Paper presented at the 9th International Family Violence Research Conference, New Hampshire.

  50. Graham-Kevan, N., & Archer, J. (2005b). Investigating three explanations of women’s relationship aggression. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 29, 270–277.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Gray, H. M., & Foshee, V. (1997). Adolescent dating violence: Differences between one-sided and mutually violent profiles. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 12, 126–141.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Hamberger, Lohr, Bonge, Tolin (1996).

  53. Hamby, S. L., & Sugarman, D. B. (1999). Acts of psychological aggression against a partner and their relation to physical assault and gender. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 61, 959–970.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Hamel, J. (2005). Gender inclusive treatment of intimate partner abuse: A comprehensive approach. New York: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  55. Hare, R. D. (1993). Without conscience: The disturbing world of the psychopaths among us. NY: Guildford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  56. Harned, M. S. (2001). Abused women or abused men? An examination of the context and outcomes of dating violence. Violence and Victims, 16, 269–285.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Hemming, K., Jones, A., & Holdford, R. (2003). Treatment needs of women arrested for domestic violence: A comparison with male offenders. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18, 839–856.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Henning, K., & Feder, L. (2004). A comparison of men and women arrested for domestic violence: Who presents the greater threat? Journal of Family Violence, 19, 69–80.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Hird, M. J. (2000). An empirical study of adolescent dating aggression in the U.K. Journal of Adolescence, 23, 69–78.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Holtzworth-Munroe, A., & Stuart, G. L. (1994). Typologies of male batterers: Three subtypes and the differences among them. Psychological Bulletin, 116, 476–497.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Huss, M. T., & Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J. (2000). Identification of the psychopathic batterer: The clinical, legal, and policy implications. Violent and Aggressive Behavior, 5, 403–422.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Johnson, M. P. (1995). Patriarchal terrorism and common couple violence: Two forms of violence against women. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 283–294.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Johnson, M. P. (1999, November). Two types of violence against women in the American family: Identifying intimate terrorism and common couple violence. Paper presented at the annual meetings of the National Council on Family Relations, Irvine, CA.

  64. Jones, A., & Gondolf, E. (2001). Time-varying risk factors for reassault by batterer program participants. Journal of Family Violence, 16, 345–359.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Johnson, M. P., & Leone, J. M. (2005). The differential effects of intimate terrorism and situational couple violence: Findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey. Journal of Family Issues, 26, 322–349.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Johnston, J. R., & Campbell, L. E. (1993). A clinical typology of interparental violence in disputed-custody divorces. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 63, 190–199.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Kantor, K., Jasnski, J. L., & Aldarondo, E. (1994). Sociocultural status and incidence of marital violence in Hispanic families. Violence and Victims, 9, 207–222.

    Google Scholar 

  68. Katz, J., Kufflel, S. W., & Coblentz, A. (2002). Are there gender differences in sustaining dating violence? An examination of frequency, severity and relationship satisfaction. Journal of Family Violence, 17, 247–271.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Lafayette College (2005). Benton Wilmoth ’05 Explores Domestic Violence Legislation in Post-Communist Europe retrieved on 2nd July 2006 from http://www.lafayette.edu/news.php/view/2187.

  70. Lloyd, S. A., & Emery, B. C. (1994). Physically aggressive conflict in romantic relationships. In D. D. Cahn (Ed.), Conflict in personal relationships (pp. 27–46). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  71. McGuire, J., & Priestly, P. (2000). Reviewing what works: Past, present and future. In: J. McGuire (Ed.), What works: Reducing reoffending, guidelines from research and practice. UK: John Wiley & Sons.

  72. Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Rutter, M., & Silva, P. A. (2001). Sex differences in antisocial behavior. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  73. Molidor, C. E. (1995). Gender differences of psychological abuse in high school dating relationships. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 12, 119–134.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Monson, C. M., & Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J. (2002). Sexual and nonsexual dating violence perpetration: Testing an integrated perpetrator typology. Violence and Victims, 17, 403–428.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Morse, B. J. (1995). Beyond the conflict tactics scale: Assessing gender differences in partner violence. Violence and Victims, 10, 251–272.

    Google Scholar 

  76. Novak, S., & Galaway, B. (1983). Domestic Abuse Intervention Project Final Report. Duluth MN: Domestic Abuse Intervention Project.

    Google Scholar 

  77. O’Leary, K. D., Barling, J., Arias, I., & Rosenbaum, A. (1989). Prevalence and stability of physical aggression between spouses: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 263–268.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Paglow, M. D. (1992). Adult victims of domestic violence: Battered women. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 7, 87–120.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  79. Riggs, D. S. (1993). Relationship problems and dating aggression: A potential treatment target. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 8, 18–35.

    Google Scholar 

  80. Roscoe, B., & Callahan, J. E. (1985). Adolescent’s self-reports of violence in families and dating relationships. Adolescence, 79, 545–553.

    Google Scholar 

  81. Rosenbaum, A., Abend, S. S., & Gearan, P. J. (1997). Serotonergic functioning in partner-abusive men. In: A. Raine, P. A. Brennan, D. P. Farrington, S. A. Mednick (Eds.), Biosocial bases of violence (pp. 329–332). New York, NY, US: Plenum Press.

    Google Scholar 

  82. Rosenbaum, A., & Hoge, S. K. (1989). Head injury and marital aggression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 1048–1051.

    Google Scholar 

  83. Rosenbaum, A., Hoge, S. K., Adelman, S. A., Warnken, W. J., Fletcher, K. E., & Kane, R. L. (1994). Head injury in partner-abusive men. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 1187–1193.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  84. Rouse, L. P. (1990). The dominance motive in abusive partners: Identifying couples at risk. Journal of College Student Development, 31, 330–335.

    Google Scholar 

  85. Saunders, D. G. (1988). Wife abuse, husband abuse or mutual combat? A feminist perspective on the empirical findings. In K. Yllo & M. Bograd (Eds.), Feminist perspectives on wife abuse (pp. 90–113). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  86. Serbin, L., Stack, D., De Genna, N., Grunzeweig, N., Temcheff, C. E., Schwartzmann, A. E., et al. (2004). When aggressive girls become mothers. In M. a. B. Putallaz, K. L. (Eds.), Aggression, antisocial behavior and violence among girls. New York: The Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  87. Shepard, M. (1992). Predicting batterer recidivism five years after community intervention. Journal of Family Violence, 7(3), 167–178.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  88. Shepard, M. F., & Campbell, J. A. (1992). The abusive behavior inventory: A measure of psychological and physical abuse. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 7, 291–305.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  89. Simmons, C., Lehmann, P., & Cobb, N. (2004, September 18). Personality profiles and attitudes toward violence of women arrested for domestic violence: How they differ from and are similar to men arrested for domestic violence. Paper presented at the FVSAI 9th International Conference on Family Violence, San Diego, CA.

  90. Sommer, R. (1994). Male and female perpetrated partner abuse. Dissertation Abstracts International: The Sciences and Engineering, 56(9-B), 5185.

  91. Sorenson, S. B., & Telles, C. A. (1991). Self-reports of spousal violence in a Mexican-American and non-Hispanic white population. Violence and Victims, 6, 3–15.

    Google Scholar 

  92. Stacey, W. A., Hazlewood, L. R., & Shupe, A. (1994). The violent couple. Praeger.

  93. Statistics Canada (2000). Family violence in Canada: A statistical profile. Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, No.85.

  94. Stets, J. E. (1988). Domestic violence and control. New York: Springer-Verlag.

    Google Scholar 

  95. Stets, J. E. (1991). Psychological aggression in dating relationship: The role of interpersonal control. Journal of Family Violence, 6, 97–114.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  96. Stets, J. E., & Pirog-Good, M. A. (1990). Interpersonal control and courtship aggression. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 7, 371–394.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  97. Sugarman, D. B., & Frankel, S. L. (1996). Patriarchal ideology and wife-assault: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Family Violence, 11, 13–40.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  98. Walker, L. E. A. (1984). The battered woman syndrome. New York: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  99. WAVE (2006) retrieved on 2nd July 2006 from http://www.wave-network.org/.

  100. White, R. J., & Gondolf, E. W. (2000). Implications of personality profiles for batterer treatment. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 15, 467–486.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  101. White, J. W., Merrill, L. L., & Koss, M. P. (2001). Predictors of courtship violence in a Navy recruit sample. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 16, 910–927.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  102. Wilmoth, B., & Fabian, K. (2005). Benton Wilmoth ’05 explores domestic violence legislation in post-Communist Europe accessed on 15th May 2006 from http://www.lafayette.edu/news.php/view/2187.

  103. Wong, S., & Hare, R. D. (2005). Guidelines for Psychopathy Treatment Program. Toronto, ON: Multi-Health Systems.

    Google Scholar 

  104. Yllö, K. A. (1994). Through a Feminist Lens: Gender, power, and violence In R. J. Gelles & D. R. Loseke (Eds.), Current controversies on family violence. Sage.

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Nicola Graham-Kevan.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Graham-Kevan, N. Domestic Violence: Research and Implications for Batterer Programmes in Europe. Eur J Crim Policy Res 13, 213–225 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10610-007-9045-4

Download citation

Keywords

  • Domestic violence
  • Partner violence
  • Treatment
  • Duluth
  • Europe
  • Feminism
  • Typologies