The Market for Scientific Crime Prevention: A Comparative Study of Canada and Venezuela



Crime prevention is an activity that, sooner or later, requires the concourse of science. But the dictates of science may not mesh well with the social, institutional and political considerations that are persistent and powerful determinants of collective action. To the extent that they are ignored, crime prevention is less scientific and more pragmatic. Using a marketing metaphor, this paper examines selected aspects of the supply of and demand for scientific crime prevention in Canada and Venezuela from 1949 to the present. In both countries, academic entrepreneurs are revealed to be a necessary factor in the sale of crime prevention to government. On the demand side, governments adopt and adapt crime prevention policies in relation to their broader perspective on social problems and social change. However, rising crime rates and climates of urgency reduce the attractiveness of crime prevention. Scientific crime prevention is easier to sell when crime rates are stable or declining.


crime prevention crime rates policy Canada Venezuela 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aniyar de Castro, L., Legitimación interna y estrategias de dominación en la campaña contra las drogas de 1984, en Venezuela. Capítulo Criminológico, 13, pp. 1–28, 1985.Google Scholar
  2. Aniyar de Castro, L., Entre la Dominación y el Miedo. Nueva Criminología y Nueva Política Criminología. Mérida: Editorial Casa Blanca, 2003.Google Scholar
  3. Begin, P., Crime and Prevention in Canada. Background Paper. Ottawa: Library of Parliament. Research Branch, 1992.Google Scholar
  4. Billis, D., At risk of prevention. Journal of Social Policy, 10(3), pp. 367–379, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Birkbeck, C., La planificación de la política antidelictiva en Venezuela: Balance y perspectivas. Revista Cenipec, 7, pp. 67–123, 1982.Google Scholar
  6. Birkbeck, C., La criminología como discurso moral: Los planteamientos sobre las causas de la delincuencia en Venezuela, 1950–1990. In: L. Gabaldón and C. Birkbeck (Eds.), Control Social y Justicia Penal en Venezuela. Ensayos en Homenaje a Héctor Febres Cordero, pp. 37–68. Mérida: Universidad de Los Andes, 1996.Google Scholar
  7. Birkbeck, C., Police use of force and transnational review processes: The Venezuelan police under the Inter-American System. In: J. Sheptycki and A. Goldsmith (Eds.), Crafting Global Policing. Oxford: Hart, in press.Google Scholar
  8. Bonta, J. and R. Cormier, Corrections research in Canada: Impressive progress and promising prospects. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 41(2), pp. 235–247, 1999.Google Scholar
  9. Bonta, J., I. Zinder, A. Harris and D. Carriere, The dangerous offender provisions: Are they targeting the right offenders? Canadian Journal of Criminology, 40 (4), pp. 377–400, 1998.Google Scholar
  10. Brantingham, P.J. and F.L. Faust, A conceptual model of crime prevention. Crime and Delinquency, 22(3), pp. 284–296, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brodeur, J.-P., Police et prévention au Canada et au Québec. Les Cahiers de la Sécurité Intérieure, 37(3), pp. 161–181, 1999a.Google Scholar
  12. Brodeur, J.-P., Sentencing reform: Ten years after the Canadian Sentencing Commission. In: J. Roberts and D. Cole (Eds.), Making Sense of Sentencing, pp. 332–348. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999b.Google Scholar
  13. Brooks, S. and A.-G. Gagnon, Social Scientists, Policy and the State. New York: Praeger, 1990.Google Scholar
  14. Caldeira, T., City of Walls. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.Google Scholar
  15. Campbell, D., Reforms as experiments. American Psychologist, 24, pp. 409–428, 1969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Campbell, D., Methods for the Experimenting Society. Paper presented to the Eastern Psychological Association, New York City, and the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, 1971.Google Scholar
  17. Campbell, D., Assessing the Impact of Planned Social Change. Dartmouth College: Public Affairs Center. Occasional Paper No. 8, 1976.Google Scholar
  18. Campbell, D. and M. Russo, Social Experimentation. Thousand Oaks: Sage, 1999.Google Scholar
  19. Canada Parliament, Crime Prevention in Canada: Toward a National Strategy. Twelfth Report of the House of Commons Standing Committee on Justice and the Solicitor General/Bob Horner Chairman. Ottawa: House of Commons, Issue No. 87, 23/02/1993, 1993.Google Scholar
  20. CCJA (Canadian Criminal Justice Association), Safer communities: A social strategy for crime prevention in Canada. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 31(4), pp. 359–401, 1989.Google Scholar
  21. CCSD-CCJA (Canadian Council on Social Development – Canadian Criminal Justice Association), Crime Prevention Through Social Development. A Discussion Paper for Social Policy Makers and Practitioners. Ottawa: Canadian Council on Social Development, 1984.Google Scholar
  22. Chiossone, T., Palabras preliminares. Anuario del Instituto de Ciencias Penales y Criminológicas, 1, pp. 9–12, 1967.Google Scholar
  23. Clarke, R. and G. Laycock, Crime prevention policy and government research: A comparison of the United States and United Kingdom. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, XLII(1–2), pp. 235–255, 2001.Google Scholar
  24. Cova, L., Tasas de mortalidad por homicidio en Venezuela. Criminalia, XVII(12), pp. 691–692, 1951.Google Scholar
  25. CSC (Canadian Sentencing Commission), Sentencing Reform: A Canadian Approach. Report of the Canadian Sentencing Commission. Ottawa: Canada Government Publishing Centre, 1987.Google Scholar
  26. Cullen, F. and P. Gendreau, Assessing correctional rehabilitation: Policy, practice, and prospects. In: J. Horney, R. Peterson, D. Mackenzie, J. Martin and D. Rosenbaum (Eds.), Criminal Justice 2000. Volume 3. Policies, Processes and Decisions of the Criminal Justice System, pp. 109–175. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, 2000.Google Scholar
  27. Department of Justice, The Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders. A Source Book of Canadian Experiences. Ottawa: Department of Justice Canada, 1990.Google Scholar
  28. Department of Justice, JustStats. No. 2002–2001. Ottawa: Department of Justice, Research and Statistics Division, 2002.Google Scholar
  29. Edelman, S. and W. Rowe, Crime prevention from the justice system perspective: A conceptual and planning model. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 25, pp. 391–398, 1983.Google Scholar
  30. Ekblom, P., Proximal circumstances: A mechanism-based classification of crime prevention. In: R. Clarke (Ed.), Crime Prevention Studies, pp. 185–232. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press, 1994.Google Scholar
  31. Farrington, D.P. and A. Petrosino, The Campbell Collaboration Crime and Justice Group. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Social Science, 578, pp. 35–49, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fattah, E.A., Making the punishment fit the crime: The case of imprisonment. The problems inherent in the use of imprisonment as a retributive sanction. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 24, pp. 1–12, 1982.Google Scholar
  33. Ferrer, M., “Violencia y víctimas”. In: R. Briceño-León and J. Mayorca (Eds.), Fin a la Violencia: Tema del Siglo XX!, pp. 105–128. Caracas: Fundación Francisco Herrera Luque, 2004.Google Scholar
  34. Fontiveros, A., Factores Predominantes de la Criminalidad en Venezuela y sus Bases Estadísticas. Caracas: Ministerio de Justicia, 1956.Google Scholar
  35. FPTWGCSCP (Federal-Provincial-Territorial Working Group on Community Safety and Crime Prevention), Step by Step. Evaluating Your Community Crime Prevention Efforts. Ottawa: FPTWGCSCP, 1996. Available at:
  36. Gabaldón, L., Criminología académica y praxis criminológica. Revista Cenipec, 4, pp. 9–32, 1979.Google Scholar
  37. Gabor, T., Concluding remarks. Pour conclure. Prevention into the Twenty-First Century: Some final remarks. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 32, pp. 197–212, 1990.Google Scholar
  38. García Sucre, V., F.C. Canestri, M. de Pérez Díaz, E. de Pérez Plaza and J.L. Vethencourt, “Tendencias del delito y estrategias para su prevención”. In: VI Congreso de las Naciones Unidas sobre la Prevención del Delito y el Tratamiento del Delincuente. Ponencias de Venezuela, pp. 7–26. Caracas: Ministerio de Justicia, 1980.Google Scholar
  39. Garland, D., The Culture of Control. Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001.Google Scholar
  40. Gendreau, P., Offender rehabilitation. What we know and what needs to be done. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 23(1), pp. 144–161, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gendreau, P. and D. Andrews, Psychological consultation in correctional agencies: Case studies and general issues. In: J. Platt and R. Wicks (Eds.), The Psychological Consultant. New York: Grune and Stratton, 1979.Google Scholar
  42. Gendreau, P. and R. Ross, Effective correctional treatment: Bibliotherapy for cynics. Crime and Delinquency, 25(4), pp. 463–489, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gervais, C., Governing Crime Through Prevention in Late Twentieth Century Canada. Ottawa: Carleton University. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, 2002.Google Scholar
  44. Gilling, D., Crime Prevention. Theory, Policy, Politics. London: UCL Press, 1997.Google Scholar
  45. Greene, J.C., Public policy and program evaluation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(2), pp. 433–436, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hagan, J., Learning to live with deviance. In: D. Macfarlane (Ed.), A Crime Prevention Workshop, pp. 29–60. Toronto: University of Toronto, Centre of Criminology, 1975.Google Scholar
  47. Han, P., Los linchamientos en el estado de derecho venezolano. Capítulo Criminológico, 26(1), pp. 67–88, 1998.Google Scholar
  48. Hartnagel, T. (Ed.), Canadian Crime Control Policy. Toronto: Harcourt Brace, 1998.Google Scholar
  49. Hastings, R., Crime prevention and criminal justice. In: T. Fleming (Ed.), Post-Critical Criminology, pp. 29–60. Scarborough, ON: Prentice-Hall, 1996.Google Scholar
  50. Hastings, R., La prevention du crime par la dévoloppement social: Una strategie à la recherche d'une synthèse. Criminologie, XXXI(1), pp. 109–123, 1998.Google Scholar
  51. Hastings, R., We are acting locally, but are we thinking globally? Preventing Crime Through Social Development (published by the Canadian Council on Social Development), Bulletin No. 6, Winter 2003, 2003.Google Scholar
  52. Hastings, R. and R. Melchers, Municipal government involvement in crime prevention in Canada. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 32(1), pp. 107–123, 1990.Google Scholar
  53. Hiew, C., Prevention of shoplifting: A community action approach. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 23, pp. 57–68, 1981.Google Scholar
  54. Hofley, B.C., Address. In: D. Macfarlane (Ed.), A Crime Prevention Workshop, pp. 65–70. Toronto: University of Toronto, Centre of Criminology, 1975.Google Scholar
  55. Ignatieff, M., Crime prevention: The history of failure. In: D. Macfarlane (Ed.), A Crime Prevention Workshop, pp. 65–70. Toronto: University of Toronto, Centre of Criminology, 1975.Google Scholar
  56. Kennedy, L. and D. Witch, Why are crime rates going down? A case study in Edmonton. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 39, pp. 51–70, 1997.Google Scholar
  57. Klockars, C., The true limits of the effectiveness of correctional treatment. The Prison Journal, 55, pp. 53–64, 1975.Google Scholar
  58. Kong, R., Canadian crime statistics. In: R. Silverman, J. Teevan and V. Sacco (Eds.) Crime in Canadian Society, pp. 65–70. Toronto: Harcourt Brace, 1999.Google Scholar
  59. LaPlante, J.M., Research use in policy and decision settings: Closing the gap. In: P.J. Bergerson (Ed.), Teaching Public Policy: Theory, Research and Practice, pp. 57–65. New York: Greenwood Press, 1991.Google Scholar
  60. Londoño, J., A. Gaviria and R. Guerrero, Asalto al Desarrollo. La Violencia en América Latina. Washington: Interamerican Development Bank, 2000.Google Scholar
  61. Macfarlane, D., A Crime Prevention Workshop. Toronto: University of Toronto, Centre of Criminology, 1975.Google Scholar
  62. Mantellini, P., L. Aniyar de Castro and M. Linares, Delincuencia y abuso de poder: Delitos y delincuentes fuera del alcance de la ley. In: VI Congreso de las Naciones Unidas sobre la Prevención del Delito y el Tratamiento del Delincuente. Ponencias de Venezuela, pp. 43–56. Caracas: Ministerio de Justicia, 1980.Google Scholar
  63. Martinson, R.L., What works? – Questions and answers about prison reform. The Public Interest, 35, pp. 22–54, 1974.Google Scholar
  64. Mayorca, J. and R. Yépez, La prevención del delito en Venezuela. Relación Criminológica, Año 3(No. 5), pp. 21–32, 1970.Google Scholar
  65. Ministerio de Justicia, Estadística Delictiva 1959–1968. Policial. Penitenciaria. Criminal. Caracas: Ministerio de Justicia, Dirección de Prevención del Delito, 1970.Google Scholar
  66. Ministerio de Justicia, Prevención del Delito. Textos para su Estudio. Caracas: Ministerio de Justicia, Dirección de Prevención del Delito, 1970–1972.Google Scholar
  67. Ministerio de Justicia, Memoria y Cuenta 1978. Caracas: Ministerio de Justicia, 1979.Google Scholar
  68. Ministerio de Justicia, Memoria y Cuenta 1980. Caracas: Ministerio de Justicia, 1981.Google Scholar
  69. Ministerio de Justicia, Memoria y Cuenta 1987. Caracas: Ministerio de Justicia, 1988.Google Scholar
  70. NCPC (National Conference on the Prevention of Crime), National Conference on the Prevention of Crime. Toronto: University of Toronto, Centre of Criminology, 1965.Google Scholar
  71. NCPS, Backgrounder Q1. What is the National Strategy on Community Safety and Crime Prevention?. Ottawa: NCPS, 2001a. Available at: = v&di = JOPCSFNH0.
  72. NCPS, Backgrounder. National Strategy on Community Safety and Crime Prevention. Ottawa: NCPS, 2001b. Available at: = v&di = JOSCRNRQ0.
  73. Nettler, G., Social science and social policy. In: D. Macfarlane (Ed.), A Crime Prevention Workshop, pp. 73–79. Toronto: University of Toronto, Centre of Criminology, 1975.Google Scholar
  74. Nieves, H., Palabras de presentación. Relación Criminológica, Año 1(No. 1), pp. 5–8, 1968.Google Scholar
  75. Normandeau, A. and B. Hasenpusch, Prevention Programs, Their Evaluation and Their Effectiveness. Results and Recommendations. Ottawa: Solicitor General of Canada. Unpublished report, 1978.Google Scholar
  76. Nuttall, C., Crime prevention in Canada. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 31(4), pp. 477–487, 1989.Google Scholar
  77. Oakley, A., Experiments in Knowing: Gender and Method in the Social Sciences. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2000.Google Scholar
  78. Ouimet, M., Explaining the American and Canadian crime “drop” in the 1990's. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 44(1), pp. 33–50, 2002.Google Scholar
  79. Patiño, M., La Política Preventiva del Delito. Caracas: Ministerio de Justicia, 1980.Google Scholar
  80. PROVEA (Programa Venezolano de Educación-Acción en Derechos Humanos), Informe Anual 2002–2003, 2003. Available at:
  81. RCMP (Royal Canadian Mounted Police), Law and Order in a Canadian Democracy. Ottawa: Edmond Cloutier, 1949.Google Scholar
  82. Redekop, V. and V. Schmolka, An Inventory of Federal Crime Prevention Activities. Ottawa: Interdepartmental Working Group on Crime Prevention, 1993.Google Scholar
  83. Reiss, A. and J. Roth, Understanding and Preventing Violence. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1993.Google Scholar
  84. Riera, A. and R. del Olmo, Hacia una Criminología de las Contradicciones. El Caso Latinoamericano. Caracas: Italgráfica, 1985.Google Scholar
  85. Roberts, J.V., L.J. Stalans, D. Indermaur and M. Hough, Penal Populism and Public Opinion: Lessons from Five Countries. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.Google Scholar
  86. Rodríguez, J., Análisis Crítico de la Prevención del Delito en Venezuela. Mérida: Universidad de Los Andes, Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Políticas, Escuela de Derecho, undergraduate thesis, 1985.Google Scholar
  87. Romero, M., La Delincuencia en Venezuela. Sus Principales Causas. Paper presented to the First Seminar on Crime Prevention. Caracas: Ministerio de Justicia, Comisión de Prevención de la Delincuencia, 1959.Google Scholar
  88. Rosales, E., Seguridad ciudadana, función policial y política legislativa venezolana. Capítulo Criminológico, 30(4), pp. 287–311, 2002.Google Scholar
  89. Ross, R. and E. Fabiano, Time to Think. A Cognitive Model of Delinquency Prevention and Offender Rehabilitation. Johnson City, Tennessee: Institute of Social Sciences and Arts, 1985.Google Scholar
  90. Ross, R. and P. Gendreau, (Eds.), Effective Correctional Treatment. Toronto: Butterworth, 1980.Google Scholar
  91. Rutter, M. and H. Giller, Juvenile Delinquency: Trends and Perspectives. New York: Penguin, 1983.Google Scholar
  92. Sherman, L.W., D.C. Gottfredson, D.L. MacKenzie, J. Eck, P. Reuter and S.D. Bushway, Preventing Crime: What Works, What Doesn't, What's Promising. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, US Department of Justice, 1997.Google Scholar
  93. Sherman, L.W., D.P. Farrington, B.C. Welsh and D.L. MacKenzie, Evidence-Based Crime Prevention. Florence, KY: Routledge, 2002.Google Scholar
  94. Solomon, P., The policy process in Canadian criminal justice: A perspective and research agenda. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 23, pp. 5–26, 1981.Google Scholar
  95. Statistics Canada, Crimes by Type of Offence, 2004. Available at:
  96. Taylor, I., Crime, market-liberalism and the European idea. In: V. Ruggiero, N. South and I. Taylor (Eds.), The New European Criminology: Crime and Social Order in Europe, pp. 19–36. London: Routledge, 1998.Google Scholar
  97. Venezuela, Decreto No. 323 del 19 de Octubre de 1951, 1951.Google Scholar
  98. Venezuela, Decreto No. 241 del 11 de Febrero de 1970, 1970.Google Scholar
  99. Venezuela, Ley de Reforma Parcial del Código Orgánico Procesal Penal. Gaceta Oficial (Caracas), 5.558 (Extraordinario), 2001.Google Scholar
  100. Venezuela, Ley de Reforma Parcial del Código Penal. Gaceta Oficial (Caracas), 5.763 (Extraordinario), 2005.Google Scholar
  101. Villa, E., XXX aniversario. Capítulo Criminológico 22, pp. I–IV, 1994.Google Scholar
  102. Waller, I., Current Trends in Crime Prevention: Implications for Canada. Ottawa: Ministry of Justice, Canada, 1989.Google Scholar
  103. Waller, I. and D. Weiler, La Prévention du Crime Par Le Développement Social. Document de Base et Références. Ottawa: Canadian Council on Social Development, 1984.Google Scholar
  104. West, D. and D. Farrington, Who Becomes Delinquent? London: Heinemann Educational Books, 1973.Google Scholar
  105. Wolfgang, M., Delinquency in a Birth Cohort. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1972.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Universidad de Los Andes Mérida, VenezuelaMéridaVenezuela

Personalised recommendations