Table 2 Overview of proposed dysfunctional schema modes

From: Towards a Reformulated Theory Underlying Schema Therapy: Position Paper of an International Workgroup

Schema mode (N = new) Respective EMS or need domain (in italic)
Child modes  
Disregarded child (N) EMSs in the domain Safety & Nurturance
Non-autonomous child (N) EMSs in the domain Autonomy, Competence, & Identity
Subordinate child (N) EMSs in the domain Freedom to Express Opinions, & Emotions
Constrained child (N) EMSs in the domain Spontaneity & Play
Confused child (N)a EMSs in the domain Self-Coherence
Over-diligent child (N) Unrelenting standards
Victimized child (N) Unfairness
Grandiose child Entitlement
Spoiled child (N) Entitlement
Undisciplined child Insufficient self-control/self-discipline
Impulsive child Insufficient self-control/self-discipline
Angry child Many EMSs
Enraged child Many EMSs
Rebellious child (N) Many EMSs
Sulking child (N) Many EMSs
Norm-setting modes (parental modes)  
Demanding critic Unrelenting standards
Punisher Punitiveness
Avoidance modes  
Detached protector Nearly all EMSs
Funny protector (N) Nearly all EMSs
Angry protector Nearly all EMSs
Avoidant protector (N) Nearly all EMSs
Compliant surrender Nearly all EMSs
Reassurance seeker (N) Nearly all EMSs
Detached self-soother Nearly all EMSs
Suspicious overcontroller Nearly all EMSs
Inversion modes  
Hyper-autonomous mode (N) Abandonment, dependence/incompetence, Enmeshment, subjugation, self-sacrifice, approval seeking
Clown (N) Nearly all EMSs
Attention & approval seeker Emotional deprivation, defectiveness/shame, social isolation, emotional inhibition
Self-aggrandizer Nearly all EMSs
Bully & attack Abandonment, subjugation, unfairness, mistrust/abuse
Perfectionistic overcontroller Failure, emotional deprivation, insufficient self-control
Idealizer (N) Mistrust/abuse
Daredevil (N)b Vulnerability to harm & illness
Slacker/Oblomov (N)c Unrelenting standards
Pollyanna/over-optimist (N)d Negativity/pessimism
The merciful (N) Punitiveness
The over-humble (N) Entitlement
The pretender (N) Lack of a coherent identity, lack of meaningful world
Conning & manipulation (N) Abandonment, unfairness
Predator Unfairness
  1. aThe alternative, that a Confused Child mode (EMS Lack of Coherent Identity) and a Disconnected Child mode (EMS Lack of a Meaningful World) should be distinguished is an empirical issue. Here we propose one child mode covering both EMSs for reasons of sparsity
  2. bDaredevil: A reckless person who enjoys doing dangerous things (Oxford dictionary)
  3. cOblomov: A sluggish, weak-willed, or procrastinating person (Oxford dictionary)
  4. dPollyanna: An excessively cheerful or optimistic person (Oxford dictionary)