Many studies have suggested that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is efficacious for anger expression problems. However, it is still unclear which emotion regulation strategies are most effective for anger-in (a tendency to suppress anger) and anger-control (a tendency to calm angry feelings). In the present study, anger rumination and cognitive reappraisal were manipulated, and their effects on anger-in and anger-control were investigated with a within-subjects design. Participants were 46 Japanese undergraduates assigned to the three conditions; free recall (no regulation strategy), anger rumination, and cognitive reappraisal. Results indicated that, compared to free recall and anger rumination, cognitive reappraisal, taking a third-person perspective and thinking about positive aspects of an anger-related event, induced fewer angry feelings, alleviated anger-in, and facilitated anger-control. Given that CBT has been efficacious for anger expression, CBT might facilitate taking a third-person perspective and thinking about the event more flexibly in clients.
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The authors would like to thank Kana Hashimoto, Yosuke Maeda, Yuri Matsuoka, Kimika Suzuki, Erika Toyama, and Sumire Yoshihara for help with data collection.
This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP16J02752.
Conflict of Interest
Masaya Takebe, Fumito Takahashi, and Hiroshi Sato declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
No animal studies were carried out by the authors for this article.
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Takebe, M., Takahashi, F. & Sato, H. The Effects of Anger Rumination and Cognitive Reappraisal on Anger-In and Anger-Control. Cogn Ther Res 41, 654–661 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-017-9837-x
- Anger rumination
- Cognitive reappraisal