Cognitive Therapy and Research

, Volume 38, Issue 6, pp 634–639 | Cite as

Cognitive Bias Modification of Attention is Less Effective Under Working Memory Load

  • Robert W. BoothEmail author
  • Bundy Mackintosh
  • Sirous Mobini
  • Pinar Oztop
  • Samantha Nunn
Brief Report


Cognitive bias modification for attentional bias (CBM-A) attempts to alleviate anxiety by training an attentional bias away from threat. Several authors have argued that CBM-A in fact trains top-down, reactive counteraction of the tendency to orient towards threat. Imposing a working memory (WM) load during training should therefore limit its efficacy, since WM resources are required for goal-driven control of attention. Twenty-eight subclinical high-anxious participants completed two sessions of CBM-A or placebo training: one under a high WM load, and one under a low WM load. Attentional bias was assessed after each training. CBM-A produced an attentional bias away from threat under low load, but not under high load. These results suggest CBM-A trains top-down counteraction of orienting to threat. It also suggests the administration of CBM-A in the home environment may be affected by everyday worries and distractions.


Cognitive bias modification Attentional bias Anxiety Working memory 



This work is supported by a BAP grant (11B101) from Işık University. We are grateful to Fulya Mücaviroğlu, Sirem Özen, Püren D. Şenyuva and S. Aslıhan Tüzün for their assistance with data collection.

Conflict of Interest

Robert W. Booth, Bundy Mackintosh, Sirous Mobini, Pinar Oztop, and Samantha Nunn declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Informed Consent

All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 (5). Informed consent was obtained from all participants for being included in the study.

Animal Rights

No animal studies were carried out by the authors for this article.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert W. Booth
    • 1
    Email author
  • Bundy Mackintosh
    • 2
  • Sirous Mobini
    • 3
  • Pinar Oztop
    • 4
  • Samantha Nunn
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyIşık UniversityŞile, IstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of EssexColchesterUK
  3. 3.School of PsychologyUniversity of NewcastleCallaghanAustralia
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyAbant İzzet Baysal UniversityBoluTurkey

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