Skip to main content

Perceived Control and Vulnerability to Anxiety Disorders: A Meta-analytic Review

Abstract

Contemporary theories of psychopathology suggest a lack of perceived control as central to the experience of negative emotion and to be particularly relevant to the development of anxiety disorders. The present study meta-analytically reviewed the relationship between perceived control and both trait and disorder-specific measures of anxiety in order to determine whether current evidence is consistent with perceived control functioning as a transdiagnostic vulnerability factor. A comprehensive literature review identified 51 studies with a total of 11,218 participants that were determined to meet eligibility criteria. The mean effect sizes between perceived control and trait measures of anxiety (k = 29) and disorder specific measures of anxiety (k = 37) were calculated using random-effects methods. Results indicated a large, negative association between perceived control and both trait measures of anxiety and disorder-specific measures of anxiety, with the largest associations being between perceived control and generalized anxiety disorder. Moderator analyses indicated that the associations between perceived control and trait anxiety were greater in adults than children, and varied across different measures of perceived control. These results underscore the importance of perceived control as a transdiagnostic vulnerability factor across the anxiety disorders.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

Notes

  1. 1.

    A short form of the ACQ-C was subsequently developed that consists of the ten items found to be most representative of the full ACQ-C and that correlates with the ACQ-C at r = 0.95 (Weems 2005). We chose not to distinguish between the ACQ-C and the short form of the ACQ-C in our analyses as there were an insufficient number of studies to adequately test the short form of the ACQ-C as a moderator and, unlike the ACQ-R that identifies different facets of perceived control than the ACQ, both forms of the ACQ-C identify the same two facets of perceived control.

  2. 2.

    With the publication of DSM-5 (APA 2013), OCD and PTSD are no longer considered to be anxiety disorders and are instead classified within the Obsessive–Compulsive and Related Disorders and Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders categories, respectively.

References

References marked with an asterisk indicate studies included in the meta-analysis

  1. Abramson, L. Y., Seligman, M. E., & Teasdale, J. D. (1978). Learned helplessness in humans: Critique and reformulation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 49–74. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.87.1.49.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. *Allen, A. E. V. (2007). Exposure to carbon dioxide enriched air for panic disorder with agoraphobia: An exploration of clinical utility. Retrieved from ProQuest dissertations & theses. (AAT 3259801).

  3. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.

  4. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: Author.

  5. Averill, J. R. (1973). Personal control over aversive stimuli and its relationship to stress. Psychological Bulletin, 80, 286–303. doi:10.1037/h0034845.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. *Ballash, N. G., Pemble, M. K., Usui, W. M., Buckley, A. F., & Woodruff-Borden, J. (2006). Family functioning, perceived control, and anxiety: A mediational model. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 20, 486–497. doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2005.05.002.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191–215. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.191.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37, 122–147. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.37.2.122.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Barlow, D. H. (1991). The nature of anxiety: Anxiety, depression, and emotional disorders. In R. M. Rapee & D. H. Barlow (Eds.), Chronic anxiety: Generalized anxiety disorder and mixed anxiety depression (pp. 1–28). New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Barlow, D. H. (2000). Unraveling the mysteries of anxiety and its disorders from the perspective of emotion theory. American Psychologist, 55, 1247–1263. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.55.11.1247.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Barlow, D. H. (2002). Anxiety and its disorders: The nature and treatment of anxiety and panic (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Barlow, D. H., Sauer-Zavala, S., Carl, J. R., Bullis, J. R., & Ellard, K. K. (in press). The nature, diagnosis, and treatment of neuroticism. Clinical Psychological Science. doi:10.1177/2167702613505532.

  13. *Bentley, K. H., Gallagher, M. W., Boswell, J. F., Gorman, J. M., Shear, M. K., Woods, S. W., et al. (2013). The interactive contributions of perceived control and anxiety sensitivity in panic disorder: A triple vulnerabilities perspective. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 35, 57–64. doi:10.1007/s10862-012-9311-8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. *Bonin, M. F. (2009). Vulnerability factors low control and high negative affect in the development of social anxiety and the use of safety behaviors. Retrieved from ProQuest dissertations & theses. (AAT 3358954).

  15. Brown, T. A., Barlow, D. H., & Liebowitz, M. R. (1994). The empirical basis of generalized anxiety disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 1272–1280.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Brown, T. A., & Naragon-Gainey, K. (2013). Evaluation of the unique and specific contribution of dimensions of the triple vulnerability model to the prediction of DSM-IV anxiety and mood disorder constructs. Behavior Therapy, 44, 277–292. doi:10.1016/j.beth.2012.11.002.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Brown, T. A., White, K. S., Forsyth, J. P., & Barlow, D. H. (2004). The structure of perceived emotional control: Psychometric properties of a revised Anxiety Control Questionnaire. Behavior Therapy, 35, 75–99. doi:10.1016/S0005-7894(04)80005-4.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Burger, J. M. (1989). Negative reactions to increases in perceived personal control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 246–256. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.56.2.246.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. *Cannon, M. F., & Weems, C. F. (2010). Cognitive biases in childhood anxiety disorders: Do interpretive and judgment biases distinguish anxious youth from their non-anxious peers? Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24, 751–758. doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.05.008.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., & Segerstrom, S. C. (2010). Optimism. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 879–889. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2010.01.006.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. *Chapman, K. L., Kertz, S. J., & Woodruff-Borden, J. (2009). A structural equation model analysis of perceived control and psychological distress on worry among African American and European American young adults. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23, 69–76. doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2008.03.018.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Chorpita, B. F., & Barlow, D. H. (1998). The development of anxiety: The role of control in the early environment. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 3–21. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.124.1.3.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Feldner, M. T., & Hekmat, H. (2001). Perceived control over anxiety-related events as a predictor of pain behaviors in a cold pressor task. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 32, 191–202. doi:10.1016/S0005-7916(01)00034-9.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Field, A. P. (2001). Meta-analysis of correlation coefficients: A monte carlo comparison of fixed- and random-effects methods. Psychological Methods, 6, 161–180. doi:10.1037/1082-989X.6.2.161.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Frala, J. L., Leen-Feldner, E. W., Blumenthal, H., & Barreto, C. C. (2010). Relations among perceived control over anxiety-related events, worry, and generalized anxiety disorder in a sample of adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38, 237–247. doi:10.1007/s10802-009-9365-6.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. *Furr, T. (2008). Experiential avoidance and test anxiety. Retrieved from ProQuest dissertations & theses. (AAT 3319546).

  27. *Gallagher, M. W. (2011). Agency, optimism, and the longitudinal course of anxiety and well-being. University of Kansas). ProQuest dissertations and theses. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/916606568.

  28. *Gallagher, M. W., Naragon-Gainey, K., & Brown, T. A. (2014). Perceived control is a transdiagnostic predictor of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy outcome for anxiety disorders. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 38, 10–22. doi:10.1007/s10608-013-9587-3.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Gerolimatos, L. A., & Edelstein, B. A. (2012). Predictors of health anxiety among older and young adults. International Psychogeriatrics, 24, 1998–2008. doi:10.1017/S1041610212001329.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. *Glick, D. M., & Orsillo, S. M. (2011). Relationships among social anxiety, self-focused attention, and experiential distress and avoidance. Journal of Cognitive and Behavioral Psychotherapies, 11(1), 1–12.

    Google Scholar 

  31. *Gould, C. E., & Edelstein, B. A. (2010). Worry, emotion control, and anxiety control in older and younger adults. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24, 759–766. doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.05.009.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. *Graham, J. R. (2013). Racism and anxiety in a Black American sample: The role of mediators and a brief mindfulness manipulation. Retrieved from ProQuest dissertations & theses. (UMI 3608211).

  33. Gray, J. A. (1987). The psychology of fear and stress. New York: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Gregor, K. L., & Zvolensky, M. J. (2008). Anxiety sensitivity and perceived control over anxiety-related events: Evaluating the singular and interactive effects in the prediction of anxious and fearful responding to bodily sensations. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46, 1017–1025. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2008.06.003.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Haidt, J., & Rodin, J. (1999). Control and efficacy as interdisciplinary bridges. Review of General Psychology, 3(4), 317–337. doi:10.1037/1089-2680.3.4.317.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. *Harris, J. I., Schoneman, S. W., & Carrera, S. R. (2005). Preferred prayer styles and anxiety control. Journal of Religion and Health, 44(4), 403–412. doi:10.1007/s10943-005-7179-6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Hedges, L. V., & Olkin, I. (1985). Statistical methods for meta-analysis. Orlando, FL: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Hedges, L. V., & Vevea, J. L. (1998). Fixed- and random effects models in meta-analysis. Psychological Methods, 3, 486–504. doi:10.1037/1082-989X.3.4.486.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. *Hofmann, S. G. (2005). Perception of control over anxiety mediates the relation between catastrophic thinking and social anxiety in social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43, 885–895. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2004.07.002.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. *Hogendoorn, S. M., Wolters, L. H., de Haan, E., Lindauer, R. J. L., Tillema, A. et al. (2013). Advancing an understanding of the Anxiety Control Questionnaire for Children (ACQ-C) in clinically anxious and non-anxious youth: psychometric properties, incremental prediction and developmental differences. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment. doi:10.1007/s10862-013-9386-x.

  41. *Hogendoorn, S. M., Wolters, L. H., Vervoort, L., Prins, P. J. M., Boer, F., & de Haan, E. (2008). An indirect and direct measure of anxiety-related perceived control in children: The Implicit Association Procedure (IAP) and Anxiety Control Questionnaire for Children (ACQ-C). Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 39, 436–450. doi:10.1016/j.jbtep.2007.11.003.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  42. *Karekla, M., Forsyth, J. P., & Kelly, M. M. (2004). Emotional avoidance and panicogenic responding to a biological challenge procedure. Behavior Therapy, 35, 725–746. doi:10.1016/S0005-7894(04)80017-0.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. *Kashdan, T. B., Barrios, V., Forsyth, J. P., & Steger, M. F. (2006). Experiential avoidance as a generalized psychological vulnerability: Comparisons with coping and emotion regulation strategies. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 1301–1320. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2005.10.003.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  44. *Lang, A. J., & McNeil, D. E. (2006). Use of the Anxiety Control Questionnaire in psychiatric inpatients. Depression and Anxiety, 23, 107–112. doi:10.1002/da.20133.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Lipsey, M. W., & Wilson, D. B. (2001). Practical meta-analysis. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  46. *Magaro, M. M. (2008). Antecedents and consequences of perceived control during the transition to adulthood. Retrieved from ProQuest dissertations & theses. (AAT 3335910).

  47. *Marin, C. E., Rey, Y., Nichols-Lopez, K., & Silverman, W. K. (2008). The relations between anxiety sensitivity and anxiety control in the prediction of anxiety symptoms among children and adolescents. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 36, 391–402. doi:10.1017/S1352465808004475.

    Google Scholar 

  48. *McGinn, L. K., & Jerome, Y. (2010). Family functioning and anxiety in school age children: The mediating role of control cognitions. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 3(3), 228–244. doi:10.1521/ijct.2010.3.3.228.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. *Meuret, A. E., Rosenfield, D., Seidel, A., Bhaskara, L., & Hofmann, S. G. (2010). Respiratory and cognitive mediators of treatment change in panic disorder: Evidence for intervention specificity. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(5), 691–704. doi:10.1037/a0019552.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Mineka, S., & Kihlstrom, J. F. (1978). Unpredictable and uncontrollable events: A new perspective on experimental neurosis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 256–271. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.87.2.256.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Mineka, S., & Zinbarg, R. (1996). Conditioning and etiological models of anxiety disorders: Stress-dynamic-context anxiety models. In D. A. Hope (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation. Perspectives on anxiety, panic, and fear (Vol. 43, pp. 135–210). Lincoln: Nebraska University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  52. *Moore, M. C., & Zebb, B. J. (1999). The catastrophic misinterpretation of physiological distress. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 37, 1105–1118. doi:10.1016/S0005-7967(98)00197-1.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  53. *Moulding, R., & Kyrios, M. (2007). Desire for control, sense of control and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 31, 759–772. doi:10.1007/s10608-006-9086-x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. *Moulding, R., Kyrios, M., Doron, G., & Nedeljkovic, M. (2009). Mediated and direct effects of general control beliefs on obsessive compulsive symptoms. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 41(2), 84–92. doi:10.1037/a0014840.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. *Muris, P., Mayer, B., den Adel, M., Roos, T., & van Wamelen, J. (2009). Predictors of change following cognitive-behavioral treatment of children with anxiety problems: A preliminary investigation on negative automatic thoughts and anxiety control. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 40, 139–151. doi:10.1007/s10578-008-0116-7.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  56. *Nelson, B. D., & Shankman, S. A. (2011). Does intolerance of uncertainty predict anticipatory startle responses to uncertain threat? International Journal of Psychophysiology, 81, 107–115. doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2011.05.003.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Nowicki, S., & Strickland, B. R. (1973). A locus of control scale for children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 40, 148–154. doi:10.1037/h0033978.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. *Olatunji, B. O., Feldner, M. T., Karekla, M., & Forsyth, J. P. (2008). A comparative evaluation of panicogenic processes and quality of life in a sample of non-clinical panickers and age and sex matched non-panicking controls. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22, 175–186. doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2007.02.008.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Payne, L. A., Ellard, K. K., Farchione, T. J., Fairholme, C. P., & Barlow, D. H. (in press). Emotional disorders: A unified transdiagnostic protocol. In D. H. Barlow (Ed.), Clinical handbook of psychological disorders: A step-by-step treatment manual (5th ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

  60. Pearson, M. R. (2010). Characteristics, correlates, and experiences of emetophobia: An exploratory study. Theses and dissertations. Paper 1480.

  61. *Pereira, A. I. F., Barros, L., & Mendonca, D. (2012). Perceived control and anxiety in Portuguese children. Spanish Journal of Psychology, 15, 631–637. doi:10.5209/rev_SJOP.2012.v15.n2.38874.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  62. *Pereira, A. I. F., Barros, L., Mendonca, D., & Muris, P. (2014). The relationships among parental anxiety, parenting, and children’s anxiety: The mediating effects of children’s cognitive vulnerabilities. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 23, 399–409. doi:10.1007/s10826-013-9767-5.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. *Rapee, R. M., Craske, M. G., Brown, T. A., & Barlow, D. H. (1996). Measurement of perceived control over anxiety related events. Behavior Therapy, 27, 279–293. doi:10.1016/S0005-7894(96)80018-9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Rodin, J. (1990). Control by any other name: Definitions, concepts, and processes. In J. Rodin, C. Schooler, & K. W. Schaie (Eds.), Selfdirectedness: Cause and effects throughout the life course (pp. 1–15). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  65. Rosenthal, R. (1979). The “file drawer problem” and tolerance for null results. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 638–641. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.86.3.638.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Rotter, J. B. (1954). Social learning and clinical psychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  67. Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 80, 1–28. doi:10.1037/h0092976.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  68. *Ruggiero, G. M., Stapinski, L., Caselli, G., Fiore, F., Gallucci, et al. (2012). Beliefs over control and meta-worry interact with the effect of intolerance of uncertainty on worry. Personality and Individual Differences, 53, 224–230. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2012.03.016.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Sanderson, W. C., Rapee, R. M., & Barlow, D. H. (1989). The influence of an illusion of control on panic attacks induced via inhalation of 5.5% carbon dioxide-enriched air. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46, 157–162. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1989.01810020059010.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Scott, B. G., & Weems, C. F. (2010). Patterns of actual and perceived control: Are control profiles differentially related to internalizing and externalizing problems in youth? Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 23, 515–528. doi:10.1080/10615801003611479.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Scott, B. G., & Weems, C. F. (in press). Resting vagal tone and vagal response to stress: Associations with anxiety, aggression, and perceived anxiety control among youth. Psychophysiology. doi:10.1111/psyp.12218.

  72. Seligman, M. E. P. (1975). Helplessness. San Francisco, CA: W.H. Freeman & Company.

    Google Scholar 

  73. Skinner, E. A. (1995). Perceived control, motivation, and coping. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Inc.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  74. Skinner, E. A. (1996). A guide to constructs of control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 549–570. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.71.3.549.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  75. *Smith, S. A. (2010). The effects of cognitive load on performance and anxiety reduction in a social phobia sample. Retrieved from ProQuest dissertations & theses. (AAT 3439632).

  76. Snyder, C. R. (2002). Hope theory: Rainbows of the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13, 249–275. doi:10.1207/S15327965PLI1304_01.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  77. *Sokolowski, K. L., & Israel, A. C. (2008). Perceived anxiety control as a mediator of the relationship between family stability and adjustment. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22, 1454–1461. doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2008.02.009.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  78. *Stapinski, L. A., Abbott, M. J., & Rapee, R. M. (2010). Fear and perceived uncontrollability of emotion: Evaluating the unique contribution of emotion appraisal variables to prediction of worry and generalized anxiety disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48, 1097–1104. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2010.07.012.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  79. *Stevens, K. P. (1997). Effects of worrying and aversive guided imagery on heart rate, time estimation, and self-report. Retrieved from ProQuest dissertations & theses. (AAT 9729642).

  80. *Viana, A. G. (2011). Anxiety sensitivity, behavioral inhibition, and cognitive biases as risk factors for anxiety: Cumulative, incremental, and mediated influences. Retrieved from ProQuest dissertations & theses. (AAT 3483749).

  81. *Viana, A. G., Ebesutani, C., Young, J., Tull, M. T., & Gratz, K. L. (2012). Childhood exposure to parental threatening behaviors and anxiety symptoms in a community sample of young adults: The mediating role of cognitive biases. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 36, 670–680. doi:10.1007/s10608-011-9414-7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  82. *Vujanovic, A. A., Marshall, E. C., Gibson, L. E., & Zvolensky, M. J. (2010). Cognitive-affective characteristics of smokers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder and panic psychopathology. Addictive Behaviors, 35, 419–425. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2009.12.005.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  83. *Vujanovic, A. A., Zvolensky, M. J., & Bernstein, A. (2008). Incremental associations between facets of anxiety sensitivity and posttraumatic stress and panic symptoms among trauma-exposed adults. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 37(2), 76–89. doi:10.1080/16506070801969039.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  84. Weems, C. F. (2005). The anxiety control questionnaire for children-Short Form. New Orleans, LA: University of New Orleans.

    Google Scholar 

  85. Weems, C. F., Costa, N. M., Watts, S. E., Taylor, L. K., & Cannon, M. F. (2007). Cognitive errors, anxiety sensitivity, and anxiety control beliefs: Their unique and specific associations with childhood anxiety symptoms. Behavior Modification, 31(2), 174–201. doi:10.1177/0145445506297016.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  86. Weems, C. F., & Silverman, W. K. (2006). An integrative model of control: Implications for understanding emotion regulation and dysregulation in childhood anxiety. Journal of Affective Disorders, 91, 113–124. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2006.01.009.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  87. Weems, C. F., Silverman, W. K., Rapee, R., & Pina, A. A. (2003). The role of control in childhood anxiety disorders. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27, 557–568. doi:10.1023/A:1026307121386.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  88. Weisz, J. R. (1983). Can I control it? The pursuit of veridical answers across the life span. In P. B. Baltes & O. G. Brim Jr (Eds.), Life-span development and behavior (pp. 233–300). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  89. *White, K. S., Brown, T. A., Somers, T. J., & Barlow, D. H. (2006). Avoidance behavior in panic disorder: The moderating influence of perceived control. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 147–157. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2005.07.009.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  90. *Zebb, B. J., & Moore, M. C. (2003). Superstitiousness and perceived anxiety control as predictors of psychological distress. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 17, 115–130. doi:10.1016/S0887-6185(02)00176-7.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  91. *Zvolensky, M. J., Heffner, M., Eifert, G. H., Spira, A. P., Feldner, M. T., & Brown, R. A. (2001). Incremental validity of perceived control dimensions in the differential prediction of interpretive biases for threat. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 23(2), 75–83. doi:10.1023/A:1010935407194.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Conflict of Interest

Matthew W. Gallagher, Kate H. Bentley, and David H. Barlow declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Informed Consent

All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (national and institutional). Informed consent was obtained from all individual subjects participating in the study.

Animal Rights

No animal studies were carried out by the authors for this article.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Matthew W. Gallagher.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Gallagher, M.W., Bentley, K.H. & Barlow, D.H. Perceived Control and Vulnerability to Anxiety Disorders: A Meta-analytic Review. Cogn Ther Res 38, 571–584 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-014-9624-x

Download citation

Keywords

  • Perceived control
  • Anxiety
  • Vulnerability
  • Meta-analysis
  • Transdiagnostic