Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) refers to a popular therapeutic approach that has been applied to a variety of problems. The goal of this review was to provide a comprehensive survey of meta-analyses examining the efficacy of CBT. We identified 269 meta-analytic studies and reviewed of those a representative sample of 106 meta-analyses examining CBT for the following problems: substance use disorder, schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, depression and dysthymia, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, eating disorders, insomnia, personality disorders, anger and aggression, criminal behaviors, general stress, distress due to general medical conditions, chronic pain and fatigue, distress related to pregnancy complications and female hormonal conditions. Additional meta-analytic reviews examined the efficacy of CBT for various problems in children and elderly adults. The strongest support exists for CBT of anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, bulimia, anger control problems, and general stress. Eleven studies compared response rates between CBT and other treatments or control conditions. CBT showed higher response rates than the comparison conditions in seven of these reviews and only one review reported that CBT had lower response rates than comparison treatments. In general, the evidence-base of CBT is very strong. However, additional research is needed to examine the efficacy of CBT for randomized-controlled studies. Moreover, except for children and elderly populations, no meta-analytic studies of CBT have been reported on specific subgroups, such as ethnic minorities and low income samples.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Álvarez-Jiménez, M., Parker, A. G., Hetrick, S. E., McGorry, P. D., & Gleeson, J. F. (2011). Preventing the second episode: A systematic review and meta-analysis of psychosocial and pharmacological trials in first-episode psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 37, 619–630.
Babcock, J. C., Green, C. E., & Robie, C. (2004). Does batterers’ treatment work? A meta-analytic review of domestic violence treatment. Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 1023–1053.
Baker, G. A., Brooks, J. L., Goodfellow, L., Bodde, N., & Aldenkamp, A. (2007). Treatments for non-epileptic attack disorder. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 1, CD006370.
Beck, A. T. (1970). Cognitive therapy: Nature and relation to behavior therapy. Behavior Therapy, 1, 184–200.
Beltman, M. W., Oude Voshaar, R. C., & Speckens, A. E. (2010). Cognitive-behavioural therapy for depression in people with a somatic disease: Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 197, 11–19.
Beynon, S., Soares-Weiser, K., Woolacott, N., Duffy, S., & Geddes, J. R. (2008). Psychosocial interventions for the prevention of relapse in bipolar disorder: Systematic review of controlled trials. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 192, 5–11.
Binks, C., Fenton, M., McCarthy, L., Lee, T., Adams, C. E., & Duggan, C. (2006). Psychological therapies for people with borderline personality disorder. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 1, CD005652.
Bird, V., Premkumar, P., Kendall, T., Whittington, C., Mitchell, J., & Kuipers, E. (2010). Early intervention services, cognitive-behavioural therapy and family intervention in early psychosis: Systematic review. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 197, 350–356.
Bisson, J., & Andrew, M. (2008). Psychological treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 3, CD003388.
Bisson, J. I., Ehlers, A., Matthews, R., Pilling, S., Richards, D., & Turner, S. (2007). Psychological treatments for chronic post-traumatic stress disorder. Systematic review and meta-analysis. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 190, 97–104.
Bledsoe, S. E., & Grote, N. K. (2006). Treating depression during pregnancy and the postpartum: A preliminary meta-analysis. Research on Social Work Practice, 16, 109–120.
Busse, J. W., Montori, V. M., Krasnik, C., Patelis-Siotis, I., & Guyatt, G. H. (2009). Psychological intervention for premenstrual syndrome: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 78, 6–15.
Butler, A. C., Chapman, J. E., Forman, E. M., & Beck, A. T. (2006). The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 17–31.
Cakir, S., & Ozerdem, A. (2010). Psychotherapeutic and psychosocial approaches in bipolar disorder: A systematic literature review. Turkish journal of psychiatry, 21, 143–154.
Chan, E. K.-H. (2006). Efficacy of cognitive-behavioral, pharmacological, and combined treatments of depression: A meta-analysis. Calgary: University of Calgary.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Coull, G., & Morris, P. G. (2011). The clinical effectiveness of CBT-based guided self-help interventions for anxiety and depressive disorders: A systematic review. Psychological Medicine, 41, 2239–2252.
Crepaz, N., Passin, W. F., Herbst, J. H., Rama, S. M., Malow, R. M., Purcell, D. W., et al. (2008). Meta-analysis of cognitive-behavioral interventions on HIV-positive persons’ mental health and immune functioning. Health Psychology, 27, 4–14.
Cuijpers, P., Smit, F., Bohlmeijer, E., Hollon, S. D., & Andersson, G. (2010). Efficacy of cognitive-behavioural therapy and other psychological treatments for adult depression: Meta-analytic study of publication bias. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 196, 173–178.
Del Vecchio, T., & O’Leary, K. D. (2004). Effectiveness of anger treatments for specific anger problems: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 24, 15–34.
Dennis, C.-L., & Hodnett, E. D. (2007). Psychosocial and psychological interventions for treating postpartum depression. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 4, CD006116.
Di Giulio, G. (2010). Therapist, client factors, and efficacy in cognitive behavioural therapy: A meta-analytic exploration of factors that contribute to positive outcome. Ottawa: University of Ottawa.
Dorstyn, D., Mathias, J., & Denson, L. (2011). Efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy for the management of psychological outcomes following spinal cord injury: A meta-analysis. Journal of Health Psychology, 16, 374–391.
Dutra, L., Stathopoulou, G., Basden, S. L., Leyro, T. M., Powers, M. B., & Otto, M. W. (2008). A meta-analytic review of psychosocial interventions for substance use disorders. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 179–187.
Eddy, K. T., Dutra, L., Bradley, R., & Westen, D. (2004). A multidimensional meta-analysis of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, 24, 1011–1030.
Ellis, A. (1962). Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. New York: Lyle Stuart.
Enck, P., Junne, F., Klosterhalfen, S., Zipfel, S., & Martens, U. (2010). Therapy options in irritable bowel syndrome. European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 22, 1402–1411.
Fedoroff, I., & Taylor, S. (2001). Psychological and pharmacological treatments of social phobia: A meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 21, 311–324.
Furukawa, T. A., Watanabe, N., & Churchill, R. (2007). Combined psychotherapy plus antidepressants for panic disorder with or without agoraphobia: Systematic review. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 1, CD004364.
García-Vera, M. P., & Sanz, J. (2006). Análisis de la situación de los tratamientos para/dejar de fumar basados en terapia cognitivo-conductual y en parches de nicotina/Analysis of the situation of treatments for smoking cessation based on cognitive-behavioral therapy and nicotine patches. Psicooncología, 3, 269–289.
Ghahramanlou, M. (2003). Cognitive behavioral treatment efficacy for anxiety disorders: A meta-analytic review. Unpublished Dissertation, Fairleigh Dickinson University.
Gibbon, S., Duggan, C., Stoffers, J., Huband, N., Völlm, B. A., Ferriter, M., et al. (2010). Psychological interventions for antisocial personality disorder (Review). Cochrane Database Systematic Reviews, 6, CD007668.
Gil, P. J. M., Carrillo, F. X. M., & Meca, J. S. (2001). Effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural treatment in social phobia: A meta-analytic review. Psychology in Spain, 5, 17–25.
Glombiewski, J., Sawyer, A., Gutermann, J., Koenig, K., Rief, W., & Hofmann, S. (2010). Psychological treatments for fibromyalgia: A meta-analysis. Pain, 151, 280–295.
Gould, R. A., Mueser, K. T., Bolton, E., Mays, V., & Goff, D. (2001). Cognitive therapy for psychosis in schizophrenia: An effect size analysis. Schizophrenia Research, 48, 335–342.
Gregory, V. L. (2010a). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression in bipolar disorder: A meta-analysis. Journal of Evidence Based Social Work, 7(4), 269–279.
Gregory, V. L. (2010b). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for mania: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Social Work in Mental Health, 8, 483–494.
Guggisberg, K. W. (2005). Methodological review and meta-analysis of treatments for child and adolescent obsessive-compulsive disorder. Salt Lake City: University of Utah.
Haby, M. M., Donnelly, M., Corry, J., & Vos, T. (2006). Cognitive behavioural therapy for depression, panic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder: A meta-regression of factors that may predict outcome. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 40, 9–19.
Haby, M. M., Tonge, B., Littlefield, L., Carter, R., & Vos, T. (2004). Cost-effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for major depression in children and adolescents. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 38, 579–591.
Hay, P. P., Bacaltchuk, J., Stefano, S., & Kashyap, P. (2009). Psychological treatments for bulimia nervosa and binging. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 4, CD000562.
Hendriks, G. J., Oude Voshaar, R. C., Keijsers, G. P. J., Hoogduin, C. A. L., & van Balkom, A. J. L. M. (2008). Cognitive-behavioural therapy for late-life anxiety disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 117, 403–411.
Hofmann, S. G. (2011). An introduction to modern CBT: Psychological solutions to mental health problems. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
Hofmann, S. G., Asmundson, G. J., & Beck, A. T. (in press). The science of cognitive therapy. Behavior Therapy.
Hofmann, S. G., & Smits, J. A. J. (2008). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for adult anxiety disorders: A meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 69, 621–632.
Hunot, V., Churchill, R., Silva de Lima, M., & Teixeira, V. (2007). Psychological therapies for generalised anxiety disorder. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 1, CD001848.
Illescas, S. R., Sánchez-Meca, J., & Genovés, V. G. (2001). Treatment of offenders and recidivism: Assessment of the effectiveness of programmes applied in Europe. Psychology in Spain, 5, 47–62.
Ipser, J., Sander, C., & Stein, D. (2009). Pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy for body dysmorphic disorder. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 1, CD005332.
Irwin, M. R., Cole, J. C., & Nicassio, P. M. (2006). Comparative meta-analysis of behavioral interventions for insomnia and their efficacy in middle-aged adults and in older adults 55+ years of age. Health Psychology, 25, 3–14.
Ismail, K., Winkley, K., & Rabe-Hesketh, S. (2004). Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of psychological interventions to improve glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. The Lancet, 363(9421), 1589–1597.
James, A., Soler, A., & Weatherall, R. (2005). Cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 4, CD004690.
Jarry, J., & Ip, K. (2005). The effectiveness of stand-alone cognitive-behavioural therapy for body image: A meta-analysis. Body Image, 2, 317–331.
Jorm, A. F., Morgan, A. J., & Hetrick, S. E. (2008). Relaxation for depression. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 4, CD007142.
Kangas, M., Bovbjerg, D. H., & Montgomery, G. H. (2008). Cancer-related fatigue: A systematic and meta-analytic review of non-pharmacological therapies for cancer patients. Psychological Bulletin, 134, 700–741.
Kim, J. H. (2007). A meta-analysis of effects of job stress management interventions (SMIs). Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi, 37, 529–539.
Krishna, M., Jauhari, A., Lepping, P., Turner, J., Crossley, D., & Krishnamoorthy, A. (2011). Is group psychotherapy effective in older adults with depression? A systematic review. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 26, 331–340.
Lam, D. H., Burbeck, R., Wright, K., & Pilling, S. (2009). Psychological therapies in bipolar disorder: The effect of illness history on relapse prevention—a systematic review. Bipolar Disorders, 11, 474–482.
Leichsenring, F. (2001). Comparative effects of short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy in depression: A meta-analytic approach. Clinical Psychology Review, 21, 401–419.
Leichsenring, F., & Leibing, E. (2003). The effectiveness of psychodynamic therapy and cognitive behavior therapy in the treatment of personality disorders: A meta- analysis. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 1223–1232.
Leung, K. S., & Cottler, L. B. (2009). Treatment of pathological gambling. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 22, 69–74.
Lösel, F., & Beelmann, A. (2003). Effects of child skills training in preventing antisocial behavior: A systematic review of randomized evaluations. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 587, 84–109.
Lösel, F., & Schmucker, M. (2005). The effectiveness of treatment for sexual offenders: A comprehensive meta-analysis. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 1, 117–146.
Luckett, T., Britton, B., Clover, K., & Rankin, N. M. (2011). Evidence for interventions to improve psychological outcomes in people with head and neck cancer: A systematic review of the literature. Supportive Care in Cancer, Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer, 19, 871–881.
Macdonald, G. M., Higgins, J. P., & Ramchandani, P. (2006). Cognitive-behavioural interventions for children who have been sexually abused. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 4, CD001930.
Malouff, J. M., Thorsteinsson, E. B., Rooke, S. E., Bhullar, N., & Schutte, N. S. (2008). Efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 736–745.
Marine, A., Ruotsalainen, J. H., Serra, C., & Verbeek, J. H. (2006). Preventing occupational stress in healthcare workers (Review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 4, CD002892.
Martinez-Devesa, P., Perera, R., Theodoulou, M., & Waddell, A. (2010). Cognitive behavioural therapy for tinnitus. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 9, CD005233.
Mitte, K. (2005). A meta-analysis of the efficacy of psycho- and pharmacotherapy in panic disorder with and without agoraphobia. Journal of Affective Disorder, 88, 27–45.
Montgomery, P., & Dennis, J. A. (2009). Cognitive behavioural interventions for sleep problems in adults aged 60+. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 1, CD003161.
Oakley-Browne, M., Adams, P., & Mobberley, P. (2000). Interventions for pathological gambling. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2, CD001521.
Okajima, I., Komada, Y., & Inoue, Y. (2011). A meta-analysis on the treatment effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for primary insomnia. Sleep and Biological Rhythms, 9, 24–34.
Öst, L. G. (2008). Cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety disorders: 40 years of progress. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 62, 5–10.
Özabaci, N. (2011). Cognitive behavioural therapy for violent behaviour in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis. Children and Youth Services Review, 33(10), 1989–1993.
Pearson, F. S., Lipton, D. S., Cleland, C. M., & Yee, D. S. (2002). The effects of behavioral/cognitive-behavioral programs on recidivism. Crime & Delinquency, 48, 476–496.
Peng, X.-D., Huang, C.-Q., Chen, L.-J., & Lu, Z.-C. (2009). Cognitive behavioural therapy and reminiscence techniques for the treatment of depression in the elderly: A systematic review. The Journal of International Medical Research, 37, 975–982.
Pfeiffer, P. N., Heisler, M., Piette, J. D., Rogers, M. A. M., & Valenstein, M. (2011). Efficacy of peer support interventions for depression: A meta-analysis. General Hospital Psychiatry, 33, 29–36.
Phillips, A. S. (2003). A meta-analysis of treatments for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder. Manhattan, Kansas: Kansas State University.
Pinquart, M., Duberstein, P. R., & Lyness, J. M. (2007). Effects of psychotherapy and other behavioral interventions on clinically depressed older adults: A meta-analysis. Aging and Mental Health, 11, 645–657.
Powers, M. B., Sigmarsson, S. R., & Emmelkamp, P. M. G. (2008a). A meta-analytic review of psychological treatments for social anxiety disorder. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 1, 94–113.
Powers, M. B., Vedel, E., & Emmelkamp, P. M. G. (2008b). Behavioral couples therapy (BCT) for alcohol and drug use disorders: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 952–962.
Price, J. R., Mitchell, E., Tidy, E., & Hunot, V. (2008). Cognitive behaviour therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 3, CD001027.
Rachman, S., & Wilson, G. T. (2008). Expansion in the provision of psychological treatment in the United Kingdom. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46, 293–295.
Reas, D. L., & Grilo, C. M. (2008). Review and meta-analysis of pharmacotherapy for binge-eating disorder. Obesity, 16(9), 2024–2038.
Rector, N. A., & Beck, A. T. (2001). Cognitive behavioral therapy for schizophrenia: An empirical review. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 189, 278–287.
Richardson, K. M., & Rothstein, H. R. (2008). Effects of occupational stress management intervention programs: A meta-analysis. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 13, 69–93.
Robinson, J., Hetrick, S. E., & Martin, C. (2011). Preventing suicide in young people: Systematic review. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 45, 3–26.
Rueda, S., Park-Wyllie, L. Y., Bayoumi, A., Tynan, A. M., Antoniou, T. A., Rourke, S. B., et al. (2006). Patient support and education for promoting adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy for HIV/AIDS. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 3, CD001442.
Ruhmland, M., & Margraf, J. (2001). Effektivität psychologischer Therapien von spezifischer Phobie und Zwangsstörung: Meta-Analysen auf Störungsebene/Efficacy of psychological treatments for specific phobia and obsessive compulsive disorder. Verhaltenstherapie, 11, 14–26.
Saini, M. (2009). A meta-analysis of the psychological treatment of anger: Developing guidelines for evidence-based practice. The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 37, 473–488.
Santacruz, I., Orgilés, M., Rosa, A. I., Sánchez-Meca, J., Méndez, X., & Olivares, J. (2002). Generalized anxiety, separation anxiety and school phobia: The predominance of cognitive-behavioural therapy/Ansiedad generalizada, ansiedad por separación y fobia escolar: el predominio de la terapia cognitivo-conductual. Behavioral Psychology/Psicología Conductual, 10(3), 503–521.
Shaw, K., O’Rourke, P., Del Mar, C., & Kenardy, J. (2005). Psychological interventions for overweight or obesity. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2, CD003818.
Siev, J., & Chambless, D.L. (2008). Specificity of treatment effects: Cognitive therapy and relaxation for generalized anxiety and panic disorders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75, 513–522.
Singer, G. H., Ethridge, B. L., & Aldana, S. I. (2007). Primary and secondary effects of parenting and stress management interventions for parents of children with developmental disabilities: A meta-analysis. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 13, 357–369.
Sockol, L. E., Epperson, C. N., & Barber, J. P. (2011). A meta-analysis of treatments for perinatal depression. Clinical Psychology Review, 31, 839–849.
Song, F., Huttunen-Lenz, M., & Holland, R. (2010). Effectiveness of complex psycho-educational interventions for smoking relapse prevention: An exploratory meta-analysis. Journal of Public Health, 32, 350–359.
Soo, S., Moayyedi, P., Deeks, J., Delaney, B., Lewis, M., & Forman, D. (2004). Psychological interventions for non-ulcer dyspepsia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2, CD002301.
Taylor, S., Asmundson, G. J. G., & Coons, M. J. (2005). Current directions in the treatment of hypochondriasis. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 19, 285–304.
Thomas, P. W., Thomas, S., Hillier, C., Galvin, K., & Baker, R. (2006). Psychological interventions for multiple sclerosis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 1, CD004431.
Thompson-Brenner, H. J. (2003). Implications for the treatment of bulimia nervosa: A meta-analysis of efficacy trials and a naturalistic study of treatment in the community. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 63, 4928.
Thomson, A. B., & Page, L. A. (2007). Psychotherapies for hypochondriasis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 4, CD006520.
Thorp, S. R., Ayers, C. R., Nuevo, R., Stoddard, J. A., Sorrell, J. T., & Wetherell, J. L. (2009). Meta-analysis comparing different behavioral treatments for late-life anxiety. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 17, 105–115.
Tolin, D. F. (2010). Is cognitive-behavioral therapy more effective than other therapies? A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 710–720.
Van der Klink, J. J., Blonk, R. W., Schene, A. H., & van Dijk, F. J. (2001). The benefits of interventions for work-related stress. American Journal of Public Health, 91, 270–276.
Van der Oord, S., Prins, P. J., Oosterlaan, J., & Emmelkamp, P. M. (2008). Efficacy of methylphenidate, psychosocial treatments and their combination in school-aged children with ADHD: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 783–800.
Van Straten, A., Geraedts, A., Verdonck-de Leeuw, I., Andersson, G., & Cuijpers, P. (2010). Psychological treatment of depressive symptoms in patients with medical disorders: A meta-analysis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 69, 23–32.
Vocks, S., Tuschen-Caffier, B., Pietrowsky, R., Rustenbach, S. J., Kersting, A., & Herpertz, S. (2010). Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of psychological and pharmacological treatments for binge eating disorder. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 43, 205–217.
Vos, T., Haby, M. M., Barendregt, J. J., Kruijshaar, M., Corry, J., & Andrews, G. (2004). The burden of major depression avoidable by longer-term treatment strategies. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61(11), 1097–1103.
Walker, D. F., McGovern, S. K., Poey, E. L., & Otis, K. E. (2005). Treatment effectiveness for male adolescent sexual offenders: A meta-analysis and review. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 13, 281–293.
Williams, J., Hadjistavropoulos, T., & Sharpe, D. (2006). A meta-analysis of psychological and pharmacological treatments for body dysmorphic disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 99–111.
Wilson, D. B., Bouffard, L. A., & Mackenzie, D. L. (2005). A quantitative review of structured, group-oriented, cognitive-behavioral programs for offenders. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 32, 172–204.
Wilson, K. C. M., Mottram, P. G., & Vassilas, C. A. (2008). Psychotherapeutic treatments for older depressed people. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 1, CD004853.
Wykes, T., Steel, C., Everitt, B., & Tarrier, N. (2008). Cognitive behavior therapy for schizophrenia: Effect sizes, clinical models, and methodological rigor. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 34(3), 523–537.
Zimmermann, G., Favrod, J., Trieu, V. H., & Pomini, V. (2005). The effect of cognitive behavioral treatment on the positive symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorders: A meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Research, 77, 1–9.
Zimmermann, T., & Heinrichs, N. (2006). Psychosoziale Interventionen für Frauen mit Krebserkrankungen der Genitalorgane/Psychosocial interventions for women with genital cancers. Verhaltenstherapie & Verhaltensmedizin, 27, 125–141.
The authors would like to acknowledge the following research assistants who provided crucial and much-appreciated assistance with background literature reviews, initial identification of articles, and obtained articles for use by the authors: Dan Brager, Rachel Kaufmann, Rebecca Grossman, and Brian Hall. This study was partially supported by NIMH grants MH-078308 and MH-081116 awarded to Dr. Hofmann and MH-73937.
Conflict of interest
Dr. Hofmann is a paid consultant of Merck Pharmaceutical (Schering-Plough) for work unrelated to this study.
An erratum to this article is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10608-013-9595-3.
About this article
Cite this article
Hofmann, S.G., Asnaani, A., Vonk, I.J.J. et al. The Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Review of Meta-analyses. Cogn Ther Res 36, 427–440 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-012-9476-1
- Comprehensive review