Cognitive Therapy and Research

, Volume 31, Issue 2, pp 235–262 | Cite as

Neurobehavioral Therapies in the 21st Century: Summary of an Emerging Field and an Extended Example of Cognitive Control Training for Depression

  • Greg J. Siegle
  • Frank Ghinassi
  • Michael E. Thase
Original Article


The promise of a new generation of therapies targeted to address neurobiological mechanisms thought to underlie psychological disorders, particularly depression, using cognitive and behavioral techniques is discussed. Relationships between such neurobehaviorally focused therapies and other psychological and rehabilitative interventions are also discussed. Their potential utility as adjuncts to conventional treatment, and the importance of multi-method assessment in their evaluation are emphasized. Finally, initial data from a neurobehavioral “cognitive control training” (CCT) adjunctive intervention for severe unipolar depression is presented as an extended example. These data suggest that CCT aids in reducing both physiological mechanisms underlying depression as well as depressive symptomatology.

Key words

Depression Therapy Neuroscience fMRI 



We gratefully acknowledge contributions of the volunteers who participated in this study as well as Lisa Farace, Agnes Haggerty, Emilie Muelly, and Dimple Sodhi for contributions to data collection, to Agnes Haggerty and Aaron Beck for comments on previous drafts, Kate Fissell and John Scott, for assistance in analyses, and Tiffany Painter and the staff of the WPIC Intensive Outpatient Program for consistent support for the reported trial. This research was supported by MH64159, NARSAD, MH58356, and MH30915. The idea for this article was born at a NIDA sponsored meeting in September, 2004 entitled Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience and Behavioral Treatment Development: New Directions for Translational Research, and reflects discussion which occurred at that meeting.


  1. Abercrombie, H., Schaefer, S., Larson, C., Oakes, T., Lindgren, K., & Holden, J., et al. (1998). Metabolic rate in the right amygdala predicts negative affect in depressed patients. Neuroreport, 9, 3301–3307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen, D. N., Goldstein, G., Heyman, R. A., & Tiziana, R. (1998). Teaching memory strategies to persons with multiple sclerosis. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 35, 405–410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen, D. N., Goldstein, G., & Seaton, B. E. (1997). Cognitive rehabilitation of chronic alcohol abusers. Neuropsychology Review, 7(1), 21–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Amaral, D. G., Price, J. L., Pitkanen, A., & Carmichael, S. T. (1992). Anatomical organization of the primate amygdaloid complex. In J. P. Aggleton (Ed.), The amygdala: Neurobiological aspects of emotion, memory, and mental dysfunction (pp. 1–66). New York: Wiley-Liss.Google Scholar
  5. Anderson, A. K., Christoff, K., Stappen, I., Panitz, D., Ghahremani, D. G., & Glover, G., et al. (2003). Dissociated neural representations of intensity and valence in human olfaction. Nature Neuroscience, 6(2), 196–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. APA (2000). Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder (revision). American Journal of Psychiatry, 157(4 Suppl), 1–45.Google Scholar
  7. Attkisson, C. C., & Greenfield, T. K. (1999). The UCSF Client Satisfaction Scales: 1. The Client Satisfaction Questionnaire-8. In M. E. Maruish (Ed.), The use of psychological testing for treatment planning and outcomes assessment. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  8. Baehr, E., & Baehr, R. (1997). The use of brainwave biofeedback as an adjunctive therapeutic treatment for depression: Three case studies. Biofeedback, 25(1), 10–11.Google Scholar
  9. Baehr, E., Rosenfeld, J. P., & Baehr, R. (1997). The clinical use of an alpha asymmetry protocol in the neurofeedback treatment of depression: Two case studies. Journal of Neurotherapy, 2(3), 10–23.Google Scholar
  10. Bark, N., Revheim, N., Huq, F., Khalderov, V., Ganz, Z. W., & Medalia, A. (2003). The impact of cognitive remediation on psychiatric symptoms of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 63(3), 229–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Barr, W. B., Bilder, R. M., Goldberg, E., Kaplan, E., & Mukherjee, S. (1989). The neuropsychology of schizophrenic speech. Journal of Communication Disorders, 22(5), 327–349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Baxter, L., Schwartz, J. M., Phelps, M. E., Mazziotta, J. C., Guze, B. H., & Selin, C. E., et al. (1989). Reduction of prefrontal glucose metabolism common to three types of depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46, 243–250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Beatty, J. (1982). Task-evoked pupillary responses processing load and the structure of processing resources. Psychological Bulletin, 91, 276–292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. (1996). Beck Depression Inventory Second Edition Manual. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  15. Bell, C. J., Malizia, A. L., & Nutt, D. J. (1999). The neurobiology of social phobia. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 249 (Suppl 1), S11–S18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bellack, A. S. (2004). Skills training for people with severe mental illness. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 27(4), 375–391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bench, C. J., Friston, K. J., Brown, R. G., Frackowiak, R. S., & Dolan, R. J. (1993). Regional cerebral blood flow in depression measured by positron emission tomography the relationship with clinical dimensions. Psychological Medicine, 23, 579–590.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Beutel, M. E., Stern, E., & Silbersweig, D. A. (2003). The emerging dialogue between psychoanalysis and neuroscience: Neuroimaging perspectives. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 51(3), 773–801.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Blinkow, J. (1999). Northamptonshire Wildlife – Sound Gallery: Available Web: Scholar
  20. Blumberg, H. P., Kaufman, J., Martin, A., Charney, D. S., Krystal, J. H., & Peterson, B. S. (2004). Significance of adolescent neurodevelopment for the neural circuitry of bipolar disorder. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1021, 376–383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Brewin, C. R. (2001). A cognitive neuroscience account of posttraumatic stress disorder and its treatment. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39(4), 373–393.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Brody, A. L., Saxena, S., Schwartz, J. M., Stoessel, P. W., Maidment, K., & Phelps, M. E., et al. (1998). FDG-PET predictors of response to behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy in obsessive compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Research, 84(1), 1–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Butnik, S. M. (2005). Neurofeedback in adolescents and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61, 621–625.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Carter, C. S., Macdonald, A., Botvinick, M., Ross, L., Stenger, V., & Noll, D., et al. (2000). Parsing executive processes: strategic vs evaluative functions of the anterior cingulate cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97, 1944–1948.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Carter, C. S., Perlstein, W., Ganguli, R., Brar, J., Mintun, M., & Cohen, J. D. (1998). Functional hypofrontality and working memory dysfunction in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155(9), 1285–1287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Casacalenda, N., Perry, J. C., & Looper, K. (2002). Remission in major depressive disorder: a comparison of pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, and control conditions. [see comment]. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(8), 1354–1360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Chaturvedi, S., & Thakur, R. (2003). Neuropathology of schizophrenia – a review. Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology, 46(2), 165–169.Google Scholar
  28. Cho, B. H., Ku, J., Jang, D., Lee, J., Oh, M., & Kim, H., et al. (2002). Clinical test for Attention Enhancement System. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 85, 89–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Christensen, A. -L., & Uzzell, B. P. (2000). International handbook of neuropsychological rehabilitation. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publisher.Google Scholar
  30. Clark, L., Iversen, S. D., & Goodwin, G. M. (2002). Sustained attention deficit in bipolar disorder. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 180, 313–319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Corrigan, F. M. (2004). Psychotherapy as assisted homeostasis: Activation of emotional processing mediated by the anterior cingulate cortex. Medical Hypotheses, 63(6), 968–973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Cozolino, L. J. (2002). The neuroscience of psychotherapy: Building and rebuilding the human brain (1st ed.). New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  33. Cunha, P. J., & Novaes, M. A. (2004). [Neurocognitive assessment in alcohol abuse and dependence: Implications for treatment]. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 26 (Suppl 1), 23–27.Google Scholar
  34. Dager, S. R., Layton, M., & Richards, T. (1996). Neuroimaging Findings in Anxiety Disorders. Seminars in Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 1(1), 48–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Davidson, R. J. (1994). Assymetric brain function affective style and psychopathology: The role of early experience and plasticity. Development and Psychopathology, 6, 741–758.Google Scholar
  36. Davidson, R. J. (1998). Affective style and affective disorders: Perspectives from affective neuroscience. Cognition and Emotion, 12, 307–330.Google Scholar
  37. Davidson, R. J. (2000). Affective style psychopathology and resilience: Brain mechanisms and plasticity. American Psychologist, 55, 1196–1214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Davidson, R. J. (2003). Affective neuroscience and psychophysiology: Toward a synthesis. Psychophysiology, 40(5), 655–665.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Davidson, R. J., Irwin, W., Anderle, M. J., & Kalin, N. H. (2003). The neural substrates of affective processing in depressed patients treated with venlafaxine. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(1), 64–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Davidson, R. J., Jackson, D. C., & Kalin, N. H. (2000). Emotion, plasticity, context, and regulation: Perspectives from affective neuroscience. Psychological Bulletin, 126(6), 890–909.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. De Masi, F. (2004). The psychodynamic of panic attacks: A useful integration of psychoanalysis and neuroscience. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 85(Pt 2), 311–336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Debiec, J., & Ledoux, J. E. (2004). Disruption of reconsolidation but not consolidation of auditory fear conditioning by noradrenergic blockade in the amygdala. Neuroscience, 129(2), 267–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. DeRubeis, R. J., Gelfand, L. A., Tang, T. Z., & Simons, A. D. (1999). Medications versus cognitive behavior therapy for severely depressed outpatients: Mega-analysis of four randomized comparisons. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(7), 1007–1013.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Drevets, W. C. (1994). Geriatric depression: Brain imaging correlates and pharmacologic considerations. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 55 Suppl A, 71–81; discussion 82, 98–100.Google Scholar
  45. Drevets, W. C. (1999). Prefrontal cortical amygdalar metabolism in major depression. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 877, 614–637.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Drevets, W. C. (2000). Neuroimaging studies of mood disorders. Biological Psychiatry, 48(8), 813–829.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Drevets, W. C., & Raichle, M. (1998). Reciprocal suppression of regional cerebral blood flow during emotional versus higher cognitive processes: Implications for interactions between emotion and cognition. Cognition and Emotion, 12, 353–385.Google Scholar
  48. Egner, T., Zech, T. F., & Gruzelier, J. H. (2004). The effects of neurofeedback training on the spectral topography of the electroencephalogram. Clinical Neurophysiology, 115(11), 2452–2460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Elkin, I., Shea, M. T., Watkins, J. T., Imber, S. D., Sotsky, S. M., Collins, J. F., et al. (1989). National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program. General effectiveness of treatments. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46(11), 971–982; discussion 983.Google Scholar
  50. Farrow, T. F., Hunter, M. D., Wilkinson, I. D., Gouneea, C., Fawbert, D., & Smith, R., et al. (2005). Quantifiable change in functional brain response to empathic and forgivability judgments with resolution of posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychiatry Research, 140(1), 45–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Felician, O., & Sandson, T. A. (1999). The neurobiology and pharmacotherapy of Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 11(1), 19–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. First, M. B., Spitzer, R. L., Gibbon, M., & Williams, J. B. (1996). Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Axis I Disorders Patient Edition (Vol. 20). New York: Biometrics Research Department New York State Psychiatric Institute.Google Scholar
  53. Fisk, J. E., Montgomery, C., Murphy, P., & Wareing, M. (2004). Evidence for executive deficits among users of MDMA (Ecstasy). British Journal of Psychology, 95(Pt 4), 457–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Fuchs, T. (2004). Neurobiology and psychotherapy: An emerging dialogue. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 17, 479–485.Google Scholar
  55. Fuchs, T., Birbaumer, N., Lutzenberger, W., Gruzelier, J. H., & Kaiser, J. (2003). Neurofeedback treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children: A comparison with methylphenidate. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 28(1), 1–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Ghashghaei, H. T., & Barbas, H. (2002). Pathways for emotion: Interactions of prefrontal and anterior temporal pathways in the amygdala of the rhesus monkey. Neuroscience, 115(4), 1261–1279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Goldapple, K., Segal, Z., Garson, C., Lau, M., Bieling, P., & Kennedy, S., et al. (2004). Modulation of cortical-limbic pathways in major depression: Treatment-specific effects of cognitive behavior therapy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61(1), 34–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Goldberg, R. J., Greenwood, J. C., & Taintor, Z. (1976). Alpha conditioning as an adjunct treatment for drug dependence: Part I. International Journal of Addiction, 11(6), 1085–1089.Google Scholar
  59. Goldstein, R. Z., Leskovjan, A. C., Hoff, A. L., Hitzemann, R., Bashan, F., & Khalsa, S. S., et al. (2004). Severity of neuropsychological impairment in cocaine and alcohol addiction: Association with metabolism in the prefrontal cortex. Neuropsychologia, 42(11), 1447–1458.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Goodwin, G. M. (1997). Neuropsychological and neuroimaging evidence for the involvement of the frontal lobes in depression. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 11(2), 115–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Gronwall, D. M. (1977). Paced auditory serial-addition task: A measure of recovery from concussion. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 44(2), 367–373.Google Scholar
  62. Hammond, D. C. (2005). Neurofeedback with anxiety and affective disorders. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14(1), 105–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Henningsen, P. (1998). [Self-recognition in the mirror of another? On the significance of cognitive neuroscience for psychoanalysis]. Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie, 48(3–4), 78–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Hester, R., & Garavan, H. (2004). Executive dysfunction in cocaine addiction: Evidence for discordant frontal, cingulate, and cerebellar activity. Journal of Neuroscience, 24(49), 11017–11022.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Hirshberg, L. M., Chiu, S., & Frazier, J. A. (2005). Emerging brain-based interventions for children and adolescents: Overview and clinical perspective. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14(1), 1–19, v.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Holdwick, D. J. Jr., & Wingenfeld, S. A. (1999). The subjective experience of PASAT testing. Does the PASAT induce negative mood? Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 14(3), 273–284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Ingram, R. E. (1984). Toward an information processing analysis of depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 8, 443–478.Google Scholar
  68. Jackson, D. C., Mueller, C. J., Dolski, I., Dalton, K. M., Nitschke, J. B., & Urry, H. L., et al. (2003). Now you feel it, now you don’t: Frontal brain electrical asymmetry and individual differences in emotion regulation. Psychological Science, 14(6), 612–617.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Jarrett, R. B., Kraft, D., Doyle, J., Foster, B. M., Eaves, G. G., & Silver, P. C. (2001). Preventing recurrent depression using cognitive therapy with and without a continuation phase: A randomized clinical trial. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58(4), 381–388.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Joyce, P. R., & Paykel, E. S. (1989). Predictors of drug response in depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46(1), 89–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Koretz, D., & Merikangas, K. R., et al. (2003). The epidemiology of major depressive disorder: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). JAMA, 289(23), 3095–3105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Kihlstrom, J. F., & Nasby, W. (1981). Cognitive tasks in clinical assessment: An exercise in applied psychology. In P. C. Kendall & S. D. Hollon (Eds.), Assessment strategies for cognitive behavioral interventions (pp. 287–317). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  73. Koechlin, E., Ody, C., & Kouneiher, F. (2003). The architecture of cognitive control in the human prefrontal cortex. Science, 302(5648), 1181–1185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Krabbendam, L., & Aleman, A. (2003). Cognitive rehabilitation in schizophrenia: A quantitative analysis of controlled studies. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 169(3–4), 376–382.Google Scholar
  75. Kurtz, M. M. (2003). Neurocognitive rehabilitation for schizophrenia. Current Psychiatry Reports, 5(4), 303–310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. La Vaque, T. J., & Hammond, D. C. (2002). Template for developing guidelines for the evaluation of the clinical efficacy of psychophysiological interventions. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 27(4), 273–281.Google Scholar
  77. Landro, N. I., Stiles, T. C., & Sletvold, H. (2001). Neuropsychological function in nonpsychotic unipolar major depression. Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychology, and Behavioral Neurology, 14(4), 233–240.Google Scholar
  78. Larsen, D. L., Attkisson, C. C., Hargreaves, W. A., & Nguyen, T. D. (1979). Assessment of client/patient satisfaction: Development of a general scale. Evaluation and Program Planning, 2(3), 197–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Lazeron, R. H., Rombouts, S. A., de Sonneville, L., Barkhof, F., & Scheltens, P. (2003). A paced visual serial addition test for fMRI. Journal of Neurological Sciences, 213(1–2), 29–34.Google Scholar
  80. Leiderman, E. A., & Strejilevich, S. A. (2004). Visuospatial deficits in schizophrenia: Central executive and memory subsystems impairments. Schizophrenia Research, 68(2–3), 217–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Lewis, B. (1994). Psychotherapy, neuroscience, and philosophy of mind. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 48(1), 85–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Lewis, L., Unkefer, E. P., O’Neal, S. K., Crith, C. J., & Fultz, J. (2003). Cognitive rehabilitation with patients having persistent, severe psychiatric disabilities. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 26(4), 325–331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Lewis, D. A., Volk, D. W., & Hashimoto, T. (2004). Selective alterations in prefrontal cortical GABA neurotransmission in schizophrenia: A novel target for the treatment of working memory dysfunction. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 174(1), 143–150.Google Scholar
  84. Linehan, M. M., Heard, H. L., & Armstrong, H. E. (1993). Naturalistic follow-up of a behavioral treatment for chronically parasuicidal borderline patients. [erratum appears in Arch Gen Psychiatry 1994 May;51(5):422]. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50(12), 971–974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Liotti, M., & Mayberg, H. S. (2001). The role of functional neuroimaging in the neuropsychology of depression. Journal of Clinical & Experimental Neuropsychology, 23(1), 121–136.Google Scholar
  86. Liotti, M., Mayberg, H. S., McGinnis, S., Brannan, S. L., & Jerabek, P. (2002). Unmasking disease-specific cerebral blood flow abnormalities: Mood challenge in patients with remitted unipolar depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(11), 1830–1840.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Lubar, J. F. (1997). Neocortical dynamics: Implications for understanding the role of neurofeedback and related techniques for the enhancement of attention. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 22(2), 111–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Lubar, J. F., Swartwood, M. O., Swartwood, J. N., & O’Donnell, P. H. (1995). Evaluation of the effectiveness of EEG neurofeedback training for ADHD in a clinical setting as measured by changes in T.O.V.A. scores, behavioral ratings, and WISC-R performance. Biofeedback Self Regulation, 20(1), 83–99.Google Scholar
  89. MacDonald, A. W., & Carter, C. S. (2003). Event-related FMRI study of context processing in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of patients with schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112(4), 689–697.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Macdonald, A. W., Carter, C. S., Kerns, J. G., Ursu, S., Barch, D. M., & Holmes, A. J., et al. (2005). Specificity of prefrontal dysfunction and context processing deficits to schizophrenia in never-medicated patients with first-episode psychosis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(3), 475–484.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. MacDonald, A. W., Cohen, J. D., Stenger, V. A., & Carter, C. S. (2000). Dissociating the role of the dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex in cognitive control. Science, 288, 1835–1838.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. MacLeod, C., & Mathews, A. M. (1991). Cognitive experimental approaches to the emotional disorders. In P. R. Martin (Ed.), Handbook of Behavior Therapy and Psychological Science an Integrative Approach (Vol. 16, pp. 116–150). New York, NY, USA: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  93. Mancia, M. (2004). The dream between neuroscience and psychoanalysis. Archives Italiennes de Biologie, 142(4), 525–531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Martin, S. D., Martin, E., Rai, S. S., Richardson, M. A., & Royall, R. (2001). Brain blood flow changes in depressed patients treated with interpersonal psychotherapy or venlafaxine hydrochloride: Preliminary findings. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58(7), 641–648.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Mayberg, H. S., Liotti, M., Brannan, S. K., McGinnis, B. S., Mahurin, R. K., & Jerabek, P. A., et al. (1999). Reciprocal limbic cortical function and negative mood Converging PET findings in depression and normal sadness. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 675–682.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Mayberg, H. S., Lozano, A. M., Voon, V., McNeely, H. E., Seminowicz, D., Hamani, C., et al. (2005). Deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant depression. Neuron, 45(5), 651–660.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Meyer, R. E. (1986). Psychobiology and the treatment of drug dependence: The biobehavioral interface. American Journal of Drug & Alcohol Abuse, 12(3), 223–233.Google Scholar
  98. Meyer, S. E., Carlson, G. A., Wiggs, E. A., Martinez, P. E., Ronsaville, D. S., & Klimes-Dougan, B., et al. (2004). A prospective study of the association among impaired executive functioning, childhood attentional problems, and the development of bipolar disorder. Development Psychopathology, 16(2), 461–476.Google Scholar
  99. Monastra, V. J. (2005). Electroencephalographic biofeedback (neurotherapy) as a treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Rationale and empirical foundation. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14(1), 55–82, vi.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Monastra, V. J., Monastra, D. M., & George, S. (2002). The effects of stimulant therapy, EEG biofeedback, and parenting style on the primary symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 27(4), 231–249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Moore, N. C. (2000). A review of EEG biofeedback treatment of anxiety disorders. Clinical Electroencephalography, 31(1), 1–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Moore, H., & Grace, A. (2000). Differential effect of tonic and phasic activation of the basolateral amygdala on prefrontal cortical input to nucleus accumbens neurons. Presentation at the meeting of the Society for Neuroscience New Orleans LA.Google Scholar
  103. Morey, R. A., Inan, S., Mitchell, T. V., Perkins, D. O., Lieberman, J. A., & Belger, A. (2005). Imaging frontostriatal function in ultra-high-risk, early, and chronic schizophrenia during executive processing. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(3), 254–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Morrow, J., & Fredrickson, B. L. (1993). Response styles and the duration of episodes of depressed mood. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102(1), 20–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Nutt, D. (1999). Alcohol and the brain. Pharmacological insights for psychiatrists. British Journal of Psychiatry, 175, 114–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Ochsner, K. N., Bunge, S. A., Gross, J. J., & Gabrieli, J. D. E. (2002). Rethinking feelings: An fMRI study of the cognitive regulation of emotion. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14(8), 1215–1229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Ochsner, K. N., Ray, R. D., Cooper, J. C., Robertson, E. R., Chopra, S., & Gabrieli, J. D., et al. (2004). For better or for worse: Neural systems supporting the cognitive down- and up-regulation of negative emotion. Neuroimage, 23(2), 483–499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Ottowitz, W. E., Dougherty, D. D., & Savage, C. R. (2002). The neural network basis for abnormalities of attention and executive function in major depressive disorder: Implications for application of the medical disease model to psychiatric disorders. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 10, 86–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Papageorgiou, C., & Wells, A. (2000). Treatment of recurrent major depression with attention training. Cognitive & Behavioral Practice, 7(4), 407–413.Google Scholar
  110. Paquette, V., Levesque, J., Mensour, B., Leroux, J. M., Beaudoin, G., & Bourgouin, P., et al. (2003). “Change the mind and you change the brain”: Effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy on the neural correlates of spider phobia. Neuroimage, 18(2), 401–409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Parentâe, R., & Herrmann, D. J. (2003). Retraining cognition: Techniques and applications (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.Google Scholar
  112. Penades, R., Boget, T., Lomena, F., Mateos, J. J., Catalan, R., & Gasto, C., et al. (2002). Could the hypofrontality pattern in schizophrenia be modified through neuropsychological rehabilitation? Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 105(3), 202–208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Perez-Janaray, M., & Vives, F. (1991). Electrophysiological study of the response of medial prefrontal cortex neurons to stimulation of the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala in the rat. Brain Research, 565, 97–101.Google Scholar
  114. Phillips, M. L., Drevets, W. C., Rauch, S. L., & Lane, R. (2003). Neurobiology of emotion perception II: Implications for major psychiatric disorders. Biological Psychiatry, 54(5), 515–528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Przybyslawski, J., Roullet, P., & Sara, S. J. (1999). Attenuation of emotional and nonemotional memories after their reactivation: Role of beta adrenergic receptors. Journal of Neuroscience, 19(15), 6623–6628.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Ray, J. P., & Price, J. L. (1993). The organization of projections from the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus to orbital and medial prefrontal cortex in macaque monkeys. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 337(1), 1–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Ressler, K. J., Rothbaum, B. O., Tannenbaum, L., Anderson, P., Graap, K., & Zimand, E., et al. (2004). Cognitive enhancers as adjuncts to psychotherapy: Use of D-cycloserine in phobic individuals to facilitate extinction of fear. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61(11), 1136–1144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Riddoch, M. J., & Humphreys, G. W. (1994). Cognitive neuropsychology and cognitive rehabilitation. Hove (UK), Hillsdale NJ (USA): L. Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  119. Roffman, J. L., Marci, C. D., Glick, D. M., Dougherty, D. D., & Rauch, S. L. (2005). Neuroimaging and the functional neuroanatomy of psychotherapy. Psychological Medicine, 35(10), 1385–1398.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Rosenfeld, J. P., Baehr, E., Baehr, R., Gotlib, I. H., & Ranganath, C. (1996). Preliminary evidence that daily changes in frontal alpha asymmetry correlate with changes in affect in therapy sessions. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 23(1–2), 137–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Royan, J., Tombaugh, T. N., Rees, L., & Francis, M. (2004). The Adjusting-Paced Serial Addition Test (Adjusting-PSAT): Thresholds for speed of information processing as a function of stimulus modality and problem complexity. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 19(1), 131–143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Schwartz, J. M. (1998). Neuroanatomical aspects of cognitive behavioral therapy response in obsessive compulsive disorder: An evolving perspective on brain and behaviour. British Journal of Psychiatry, 173, 38–44.Google Scholar
  123. Schwartz, J. M., & Beyette, B. (1996). Brain lock: Free yourself from obsessive-compulsive behavior: A four-step self-treatment method to change your brain chemistry (1st ed.). New York, NY: ReganBooks.Google Scholar
  124. Schwartz, J. M., Stoessel, P. W., Baxter, L. R., Martin, K. M., & Phelps, M. E. (1996). Systematic changes in cerebral glucose metabolic rate after successful behavior modification treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53(2), 109–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Segal, Z. V., Teasdale, J., & Williams, J. M. G. (2001). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: A new approach to preventing relapse. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  126. Seminowicz, D. A., Mayberg, H. S., McIntosh, A. R., Goldapple, K., Kennedy, S., & Segal, Z., et al. (2004). Limbic-frontal circuitry in major depression: A path modeling metaanalysis. Neuroimage, 22(1), 409–418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Sheline, Y. I., Barch, D. M., Donnelly, J. M., Ollinger, J. M., Snyder, A. Z., & Mintun, M. A. (2001). Increased amygdala response to masked emotional faces in depressed subjects resolves with antidepressant treatment: An fMRI study. Biological Psychiatry, 50(9), 651–658.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Siegle, G. J. (1999). A neural network model of attention biases in depression. Progress in Brain Research, 121, 415–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Siegle, G. J., Carter, C. S., & Thase, M. E. (2006). fMRI predicts recovery in cognitive behavior therapy for unipolar depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 735–738.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Siegle, G. J., Granholm, E., Ingram, R. E., & Matt, G. E. (2001). Pupillary response and reaction time measures of sustained processing of negative information in depression. Biological Psychiatry, 49, 624–636.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Siegle, G. J., & Hasselmo, M. E. (2002). Using connectionist models to guide assessment of psychological disorder. Psychological Assessment, 14, 263–278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Siegle, G. J., Steinhauer, S. R., Carter, C. S., Ramel, W., & Thase, M. E. (2003a). Do the seconds turn into hours? Relationships between sustained pupil dilation in response to emotional information and self reported rumination. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27(3), 365–383.Google Scholar
  133. Siegle, G. J., Steinhauer, S. R., Carter, C. S., & Thase, M. E. (submitted). Is sustained processing specific to emotional information in depression? Evidence from pupil dilation.Google Scholar
  134. Siegle, G. J., Steinhauer, S. R., Stenger, V., Konecky, R., & Carter, C. S. (2003b). Use of concurrent pupil dilation assessment to inform interpretation and analysis of fMRI data. Neuroimage, 20(1), 114–124.Google Scholar
  135. Siegle, G. J., Steinhauer, S. R., Thase, M. E., Stenger, V. A., & Carter, C. S. (2002). Can’t shake that feeling: fMRI assessment of sustained amygdala activity in response to emotional information in depressed individuals. Biological Psychiatry, 51, 693–707.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Siegle, G. J., Thompson, W., Carter, C. S., Steinhauer, S. R., & Thase, M. E. (in press). Increased amygdala and decreased dorso-lateral prefrontal BOLD responses in unipolar depression: Related and independent features. Biological Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  137. Sohlberg, M. M., & Mateer, C. A. (2001). Cognitive rehabilitation: An integrative neuropsychological approach. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  138. Steinhauer, S. R., & Hakerem, G. (1992). The pupillary response in cognitive psychophysiology and schizophrenia. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 658, 182–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Stickgold, R. (2002). EMDR: A putative neurobiological mechanism of action. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(1), 61–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Straube, T., Glauer, M., Dilger, S., Mentzel, H. J., & Miltner, W. H. (2006). Effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy on brain activation in specific phobia. Neuroimage, 29(1), 125–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Strauman, T. J., Vieth, A. Z., Merrill, K. A., Kolden, G. G., Woods, & T. E., Klein, M. H., et al. (2006). Self-system therapy as an intervention for self-regulatory dysfunction in depression: A randomized comparison with cognitive therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 367–376.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Surguladze, S., Brammer, M. J., Keedwell, P., Giampietro, V., Young, A. W., & Travis, M. J., et al. (2005). A differential pattern of neural response toward sad versus happy facial expressions in major depressive disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 57(3), 201–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Tamminga, C. A., Nemeroff, C. B., Blakely, R. D., Brady, L., Carter, C. S., & Davis, K. L., et al. (2002). Developing novel treatments for mood disorders: Accelerating discovery. Biological Psychiatry, 52(6), 589–609.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Taylor, S., Thordarson, D. S., Maxfield, L., Fedoroff, I. C., Lovell, K., & Ogrodniczuk, J. (2003). Comparative efficacy, speed, and adverse effects of three PTSD treatments: Exposure therapy, EMDR, and relaxation training. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(2), 330–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Teasdale, J. D. (1988). Cognitive vulnerability to persistent depression. Cognition and Emotion, 2, 247–274.Google Scholar
  146. Thase, M. E., Dube, S., Bowler, K., Howland, R. H., Myers, J. E., & Friedman, E., et al. (1996). Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical activity and response to cognitive behavior therapy in unmedicated, hospitalized depressed patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153(7), 886–891.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Thase, M. E., & Friedman, E. S. (1999). Is psychotherapy an effective treatment for melancholia and other severe depressive states? Journal of Affective Disorders, 54(1–2), 1–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Thase, M. E., Greenhouse, J. B., Frank, E., Reynolds, C. F. 3rd, Pilkonis, P. A., & Hurley, K., et al. (1997). Treatment of major depression with psychotherapy or psychotherapy-pharmacotherapy combinations. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54(11), 1009–1015.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Thase, M. E., Simons, A. D., Cahalane, J., McGeary, J., & Harden, T. (1991). Severity of depression and response to cognitive behavior therapy. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148(6), 784–789.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Thase, M. E., Simons, A. D., McGeary, J., Cahalane, J. F., Hughes, C., & Harden, T., et al. (1992). Relapse after cognitive behavior therapy of depression: Potential implications for longer courses of treatment. American Journal of Psychiatry, 149(8), 1046–1052.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Trudeau, D. L. (2005). Applicability of brain wave biofeedback to substance use disorder in adolescents. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14(1), 125–136, vii.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Tryon, W. W. (2005). Possible mechanisms for why desensitization and exposure therapy work. Clinical Psychological Review, 25(1), 67–95.Google Scholar
  153. Twamley, E. W., Jeste, D. V., & Bellack, A. S. (2003). A review of cognitive training in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 29(2), 359–382.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. van den Heuvel, O. A., Veltman, D. J., Groenewegen, H. J., Cath, D. C., van Balkom, A. J., & van Hartskamp, J., et al. (2005). Frontal-striatal dysfunction during planning in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(3), 301–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Wager, T. D., Jonides, J., & Reading, S. (2004). Neuroimaging studies of shifting attention: A meta-analysis. Neuroimage, 22(4), 1679–1693.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Wells, A. (2000). Emotional disorders and metacognition innovative Cognitive Therapy. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  157. Westen, D., & Gabbard, G. O. (2002). Developments in cognitive neuroscience: II. Implications for theories of transference. Journal of American Psychoanalytic Association, 50(1), 99–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Yoo, S. S., & Jolesz, F. A. (2002). Functional MRI for neurofeedback: Feasibility study on a hand motor task. Neuroreport, 13(11), 1377–1381.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Greg J. Siegle
    • 1
    • 2
  • Frank Ghinassi
    • 1
  • Michael E. Thase
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Pittsburgh School of MedicinePittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Western Psychiatric Institute and ClinicPittsburghUSA
  3. 3.University of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations