Newcomers’ Barriers. . . Is That All? An Analysis of Mentors’ and Newcomers’ Barriers in OSS Projects

  • Sogol Balali
  • Igor Steinmacher
  • Umayal Annamalai
  • Anita Sarma
  • Marco Aurelio Gerosa
Article

Abstract

Newcomers’ seamless onboarding is important for open collaboration communities, particularly those that leverage outsiders’ contributions to remain sustainable. Nevertheless, previous work shows that OSS newcomers often face several barriers to contribute, which lead them to lose motivation and even give up on contributing. A well-known way to help newcomers overcome initial contribution barriers is mentoring. This strategy has proven effective in offline and online communities, and to some extent has been employed in OSS projects. Studying mentors’ perspectives on the barriers that newcomers face play a vital role in improving onboarding processes; yet, OSS mentors face their own barriers, which hinder the effectiveness of the strategy. Since little is known about the barriers mentors face, in this paper, we investigate the barriers that affect mentors and their newcomer mentees. We interviewed mentors from OSS projects and qualitatively analyzed their answers. We found 44 barriers: 19 that affect mentors; and 34 that affect newcomers (9 affect both newcomers and mentors). Interestingly, most of the barriers we identified (66%) have a social nature. Additionally, we identified 10 strategies that mentors indicated to potentially alleviate some of the barriers. Since gender-related challenges emerged in our analysis, we conducted nine follow-up structured interviews to further explore this perspective. The contributions of this paper include: identifying the barriers mentors face; bringing the unique perspective of mentors on barriers faced by newcomers; unveiling strategies that can be used by mentors to support newcomers; and investigating gender-specific challenges in OSS mentorship. Mentors, newcomers, online communities, and educators can leverage this knowledge to foster new contributors to OSS projects.

Keywords

Challenges Difficulties Obstacles Joining process Onboarding Mentor Coach Tutor Newbie Newcomer Novice Open source software 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the interviewees for their time and insights, and the reviewers for their valuable comments. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation (Grants IIS-1559657 and CCF-1560526); CNPq (Grant #430642/2016-4); FAPESP (Grant #2015/24527-3).

References

  1. Allen, Tammy D; Lillian T Eby; Georgia T Chao; and Talya N Bauer (2017). Taking stock of two relational aspects of organizational life: Tracing the history and shaping the future of socialization and mentoring research. Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 102, no. 3, pp. 324–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baranik, Lisa E; Elizabeth A Roling; and Lillian T Eby (2010). Why does mentoring work? The role of perceived organizational support. Journal of vocational behavior, vol. 76, no. 3, pp. 366–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beckhusen, Julia (2016). Occupations in Information Technology. Technical report, US Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, US Census Bureau. Available online: https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2016/acs/acs-35.pdf. Accessed 13 February 2018.
  4. Begel, Andrew; and Beth Simon (2008). Novice Software Developers, All over Again. In: ICER ’08. Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Computing Education Research, Sydney, Australia, 06-07 September 2008. New York, NY, USA, pp. 3–14.Google Scholar
  5. Berlin, Lucy M. (1992). Beyond Program Understanding: A Look at Programming Expertise in Industry. Technical Report HPL-92-142, Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, Palo Alto, CA, USA. http://www.hpl.hp.com/techreports/92/HPL-92-142.html. Accessed in 18 February 2018.
  6. Bishop, Judith; Carlos Jensen; Walt Scacchi; and Arfon Smith (2016). How to Use Open Source Software in Education. In: SIGCSE ’16. Proceedings of the 47th ACM Technical Symposium on Computing Science Education, Memphis, Tennessee, 2-5 March 2016. New York, NY, USA, pp. 321–322.Google Scholar
  7. Bonaccorsi, Andrea; and Cristina Rossi-Lamastra (2004). Altruistic individuals, selfish firms? The structure of motivation in Open Source software. First Monday, vol. 9, no. 1, p. [online].CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bryant, Susan L.; Andrea Forte; and Amy Bruckman (2005). BecomingWikipedian: Transformation of Participation in a Collaborative Online Encyclopedia. In: GROUP ’05. Proceedings of the 2005 International ACM SIGGROUP Conference on Supporting Group Work, Sanibel Island, Florida, 6-9 November 2005. New York, NY, USA, pp. 1–10.Google Scholar
  9. Burnett, Margaret; Anicia Peters; Charles Hill; and Noha Elarief (2016). Finding Gender-Inclusiveness Software Issues with GenderMag: A Field Investigation. In: CHI ’16. Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, San Jose, California, USA – May 07 - 12, 2016, 2016. New York, NY, USA, pp. 2586–2598.Google Scholar
  10. Burnett, Margaret; Scott D. Fleming; Shamsi Iqbal; Gina Venolia; Vidya Rajaram; Umer Farooq; Valentina Grigoreanu; and Mary Czerwinski (2010). Gender Differences and Programming Environments: Across Programming Populations. In: ESEM ’10. Proceedings of the 2010 ACM-IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, Bolzano-Bozen, Italy, 16-17 September 2010. New York, NY, USA, pp. 28:1–28:10.Google Scholar
  11. Burnett, Margaret M.; Laura Beckwith; Susan Wiedenbeck; Scott D. Fleming; Jill Cao; Thomas H. Park; Valentina Grigoreanu; and Kyle Rector (2011). Gender Pluralism in Problem-solving Software. Interacting with Computers, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 450–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Canfora, Gerardo; Massimiliano Di Penta; Rocco Oliveto; and Sebastiano Panichella (2012). Who is Going to Mentor Newcomers in Open Source Projects? In: FSE ’12. Proceedings of the ACM SIGSOFT 20th International Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering, Cary, Cary, North Carolina, 11-16 November 2012. New York, NY, USA, pp. 44:1–44:11.Google Scholar
  13. Cassell, Justine (2003). Genderizing Human-computer Interaction. In: J. A. Jacko and A. Sears (eds.): The Human-computer Interaction Handbook. Hillsdale, NJ, USA: L. Erlbaum Associates Inc., pp. 401–412.Google Scholar
  14. Cazan, Ana-Maria; Elena Cocoradǎ; and Cǎtǎlin Ioan Maican (2016). Computer Anxiety and Attitudes Towards the Computer and the Internet with Romanian High-school and University Students. Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 55, no. Part A, pp. 258–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Choi, Boreum; Kira Alexander; Robert E. Kraut; and John M. Levine (2010). Socialization Tactics in Wikipedia and Their Effects. In: CSCW ’10. Proceedings of the 2010 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Savannah, Georgia, 6-10 February 2010. New York, NY, USA, pp. 107–116.Google Scholar
  16. Crisp, Gloria; and Irene Cruz (2009). Mentoring college students: a critical review of the literature between 1990 and 2007. Research in higher education, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 525–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dagenais, Barthélémy; Harold Ossher; Rachel K. E. Bellamy; Martin P. Robillard; and Jacqueline P. Vries (2010). Moving into a New Software Project Landscape. In: ICSE ’10. Proceedings of the 32nd ACM/IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering , Cape Town, South Africa, 1-8 May 2010. New York, NY, USA, vol. 1, pp. 275–284.Google Scholar
  18. David, Paul A.; and Joseph S. Shapiro (2008). Community-based production of open-source software: What do we know about the developers who participate? Information Economics and Policy, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 364–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. DuBois, David L; Bruce E Holloway; Jeffrey C Valentine; and Harris Cooper (2002). Effectiveness of mentoring programs for youth: a meta-analytic review. American journal of community psychology, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 157–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ducheneaut, Nicolas (2005). Socialization in an open source software community: a Socio-Technical analysis. Computer Supported Cooperative Work, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 323–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fagerholm, Fabian; Alejandro S. Guinea; Jürgen Münch; and Jay Borenstein (2014). The Role of Mentoring and Project Characteristics for Onboarding in Open Source Software Projects. In: ESEM ’14. Proceedings of the 8th ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, Torino, Italy, 18-19 September 2014. New York, NY, USA, pp. 55:1–55:10.Google Scholar
  22. Feller, Joseph; and Brian Fitzgerald (2000). A Framework Analysis of the Open Source Software Development Paradigm. In: ICIS ’00. Proceedings of the Twenty First International Conference on Information Systems, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, 2000. Atlanta, GA, USA, pp. 58–69.Google Scholar
  23. Fisher, Allan; and Jane Margolis (2002). Unlocking the clubhouse: The carnegie mellon experience. SIGCSE Bulletin, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 79–83.CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  24. Ford, Denae; Alisse Harkins; and Chris Parnin (2017). Someone like me: How does peer parity influence participation of women on stack overflow? In: VL/HCC. 2017 IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing, Raleigh, North Carolina, 11-14 October 2017. pp. 239–243.Google Scholar
  25. Ford, Denae; Justin Smith; Philip J. Guo; and Chris Parnin (2016). Paradise Unplugged: Identifying Barriers for Female Participation on Stack Overflow. In: FSE 2016. Proceedings of the 2016 24th ACM SIGSOFT International Symposium on Foundations of Software Engineering, Seattle, 13-18 November 2016. New York, NY, USA, pp. 846–857.Google Scholar
  26. Forte, Andrea; and Cliff Lampe (2013). Defining, understanding, and supporting open collaboration: Lessons from the literature. American Behavioral Scientist, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 535–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gershenfeld, Susan (2014). A review of undergraduate mentoring programs. Review of Educational Research, vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 365–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Griffin, Andrea; Adrienne Colella; and Srikanth Goparaju (2001). Newcomer and organizational socialization tactics: an interactionist perspective. Human resource management review, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 453–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Halfaker, Aaron; Aniket Kittur; and John Riedl (2011). Don’t Bite the Newbies: How Reverts Affect the Quantity and Quality ofWikipediaWork. In: WikiSym ’11. Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium onWikis and Open Collaboration, Mountain View, California, 3-5 October 2011. New York, NY, USA, pp. 163–172.Google Scholar
  30. Halfaker, Aaron; R. Stuart Geiger; Jonathan T. Morgan; and John Riedl (2013). The rise and decline of an open collaboration system: How wikipedia’s reaction to popularity is causing its decline. American Behavioral Scientist, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 664–688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hannebauer, Christoph; Matthias Book; and Volker Gruhn (2014). An Exploratory Study of Contribution Barriers Experienced by Newcomers to Open Source Software Projects. In: CSI-SE 2014. Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on CrowdSourcing in Software Engineering, Hyderabad, India, 2 June 2014. New York, NY, USA, pp. 11–14.Google Scholar
  32. Hars, Alexander; and Shaosong Ou (2002). Working for free? Motivations for participating in Open-Source projects. International Journal ofof Electronic Commerce, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 25– 39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hartzel, Kathleen (2003). How Self-efficacy and Gender Issues Affect Software Adoption and Use. Communications of ACM, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 167–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hou, Weimin; Manpreet Kaur; Anita Komlodi; Wayne G. Lutters; Lee Boot; Shelia R. Cotten; Claudia Morrell; A. Ant Ozok; and Zeynep Tufekci (2006). Girls Don’t Waste Time: Pre-adolescent Attitudes Toward ICT. In: CHI EA ’06. CHI ’06 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Montréal, Québec, 22-27 April 2006. New York, NY, USA, pp. 875–880.Google Scholar
  35. Hsieh, Gary; Youyang Hou; Ian Chen; and Khai N. Truong (2013). Welcome!: Social and Psychological Predictors of Volunteer Socializers in Online Communities. In: CSCW ’13. Proceedings of the 2013 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, San Antonio, Texas, 23-27 February 2013. New York, NY, USA, pp. 827–838.Google Scholar
  36. Huffman, Ann; Jason Whetten; and William Huffman (2013). Using technology in higher education: The influence of gender roles on technology self-efficacy. Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 1779–1786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jensen, Carlos; Scott King; and Victor Kuechler (2011). Joining Free/Open Source Software Communities: An Analysis of Newbies’ First Interactions on Project Mailing Lists. In: HICSS ’11. Proceedings of the 2011 44th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Kauai, Hawaii, 4-7 January . Washington, DC, USA, pp. 1–10.Google Scholar
  38. Kelleher, Caitlin (2009). Barriers to programming engagement. Advances in Gender and Education, vol. 1, pp. 5–10.Google Scholar
  39. Kram, Kathy E (1988). Mentoring at work: Developmental relationships in organizational life. University Press of America.Google Scholar
  40. Kraut, Robert E.; Moira Burke; John Riedl; and Paul Resnick (2012). The Challenges of Dealing with Newcomers. In: R. E. Kraut and P. Resnick (eds.): Building Successful Online Communities: Evidence-Based Social Design. MIT Press, pp. 179–230.Google Scholar
  41. Kumar, Swapna; Melissa Johnson; and Truly Hardemon (2013). Dissertations at a distance: Students perceptions of online mentoring in a doctoral program. International Journal of E-Learning & Distance Education, vol. 27, no. 1. http://ijede.ca/index.php/jde/article/view/835/1481.
  42. Labuschagne, Adriaan; and Reid Holmes (2015). Do Onboarding Programs Work? In: MSR ’15. Proceedings of the 12th Working Conference on Mining Software Repositories, Florence, Italy, 16-24 May 2015. Piscataway, NJ, USA, pp. 381–385.Google Scholar
  43. Lakhani, Karim R; and Robert Wolf (2005). Why Hackers Do What They Do: Understanding Motivation and Effort in Free/Open Source Software Projects. In: J. Feller (ed.): Perspectives on Free and Open Source Software. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, pp. 1–22.Google Scholar
  44. Lave, Jean; and Etienne Wenger (1991). Situated Learning : Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge University Press, 1 edition.Google Scholar
  45. Levine, Sheen S.; and Michael J. Prietula (2014). Open collaboration for innovation: Principles and performance. Organization Science, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 1414–1433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Malheiros, Yuri; Alan Moraes; Cleyton Trindade; and Silvio Meira (2012). A Source Code Recommender System to Support Newcomers. In: COMPSAC ’12. Proceedings of the IEEE 36th Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference, Izmir, Turkey, 16-20 July 2012. Los Alamitos, California, USA, pp. 19–24.Google Scholar
  47. Martinez, Kay (2004). Mentoring new teachers: Promise and problems in times of teacher shortage. Australian Journal of Education, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 95–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mendez, Christopher; Hema Susmita Padala; Zoe Steine-Hanson; Claudia Hilderbrand; Amber Horvath; Charles Hill; Logan Simpson; Nupoor Patil; Anita Sarma; and Margaret Burnett (2018). Open Source barriers to entry, revisited: A tools perspective. In: ICSE’18. 40th International Conference on Software Engineering, Gothenburg, Sweden, 27 May 3 June 2018. New York, NY, USA, p. 12.Google Scholar
  49. Musicant, David R.; Yuqing Ren; James A. Johnson; and John Riedl (2011). Mentoring in Wikipedia: A Clash of Cultures. In: WikiSym ’11. Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Wikis and Open Collaboration, Mountain View, California, 3-5 October 2011. New York, NY, USA, pp. 173–182.Google Scholar
  50. Nafus, Dawn (2012). Patches don’t have gender’: What is not open in open source software. New Media & Society, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 669–683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Nakakoji, Kumiyo; Yasuhiro Yamamoto; Yoshiyuki Nishinaka; Kouichi Kishida; and Yunwen Ye (2002). Evolution Patterns of Open-source Software Systems and Communities. In: IWPSE ’02. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Principles of Software Evolution, Orlando, Florida, 19-20 May 2002. New York, NY, USA, pp. 76–85.Google Scholar
  52. Nascimento, Debora Maria; Kenia Cox; Thiago Almeida; Wendell Sampaio; Roberto Almeida Bittencourt; Rodrigo Souza; and Christina Chavez (2013). Using Open Source Projects in software engineering education: A systematic mapping study. In: FIE 2013. 2013 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 23-26 October 2013. pp. 1837–1843.Google Scholar
  53. Nugent, Katherine E; Gwen Childs; Rosalind Jones; and Pamela Cook (2004). A mentorship model for the retention of minority students. Nursing Outlook, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 89–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. O’Leary-Kelly, Anne; Bill Hardgrave; Vicki McKinney; and Darryl Wilson (2004). The influence of professional identification on the retention of women and racial minorities in the IT workforce. In: NSF ’04. NSF Info. Tech. Workforce & Info. Tech. Res. PI Conf, Philadelphia, PA, USA, 2004. pp. 65–69.Google Scholar
  55. Otterbacher, Jahna; Bates Jo; and Paul Clough (2017). Competent Men and Warm Women: Gender Stereotypes and Backlash in Image Search Results. In: CHI ’17. Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Denver, Colorado, 6-11 May . New York, NY, USA, pp. 6620–6631.Google Scholar
  56. Panciera, Katherine; Mikhil Masli; and Loren Terveen (2011). How should I go from_to_without getting killed?: Motivation and benefits in open collaboration. In: WikiSym ’11. Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Wikis and Open Collaboration, Mountain View, California, 3-5 October 2011. pp. 183–192.Google Scholar
  57. Panichella, Sebastiano (2015). Supporting newcomers in software development projects. In: ICSME 2015. 2015 IEEE International Conference on Software Maintenance and Evolution, Bremen, Germany, 29 September - 1 October 2015. pp. 586–589.Google Scholar
  58. Parra, Esteban; Sonia Haiduc; and Rebecca James (2016). Making a Difference: An Overview of Humanitarian Free Open Source Systems. In: ICSE ’16. Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Software Engineering Companion, Austin, Texas, 14-22 May 2016. New York, NY, USA, pp. 731–733.Google Scholar
  59. Payne, Stephanie C; and Ann H Huffman (2005). A longitudinal examination of the influence of mentoring on organizational commitment and turnover. Academy of Management Journal, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 158–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. PiazzaBlog (2015). STEM confidence gap. Online. http://blog.piazza.com/stem-confidence-gap/ Accessed 10 October 2017.
  61. Pinto, Gustavo; and Igor Steinmacher (2017). Training the Next Generation of Software Engineers using Open-Source Software: An Interview Study. In: CSEET 2017. IEEE 30th International Conference on Software Engineering Education and Training, Savannah, Georgia, 7-9 November 2017. Los Alamitos, California, USA.Google Scholar
  62. Qureshi, Israr; and Yulin Fang (2011). Socialization in open source software projects: a growth mixture modeling approach. Organizational Research Methods, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 208–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ragins, Belle Rose (1989). Barriers to mentoring: The female manager’s dilemma. Human Relations, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Redman, Donna; Conley, Sharon; and Deal, Terrence E. (2015). A cultural approach to mentoring new teachers. In: B. S. Cooper and C. R. McCray (eds.): Mentoring for school quality: How educators can be more professional and effective. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, pp. 65–80.Google Scholar
  65. Riehle, Dirk (2015). How open source is changing the software developer’s career. IEEE Computer, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 51–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Roberts, Jeffrey A.; Il-Horn Hann; and Sandra A. Slaughter (2006). Understanding the Motivations, Participation, and Performance of Open Source Software Developers: A Longitudinal Study of the Apache Projects. Management Science, vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 984–999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Robles, Gregorio; Laura Arjona Reina; Alexander Serebrenik; Bogdan Vasilescu; and Jesús M González-Barahona (2014). FLOSS 2013: A Survey Dataset About Free Software Contributors: Challenges for Curating, Sharing, and Combining. In: MSR 2014. Proceedings of the 11th Working Conference on Mining Software Repositories, Hyderabad, India, 31 May 7 June 2014. New York, NY, USA, pp. 396–399.Google Scholar
  68. Rockoff, Jonah E (2008). Does mentoring reduce turnover and improve skills of new employees? Evidence from teachers in New York City. Technical report, National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar
  69. Runeson, Per; and Martin Höst (2009). Guidelines for conducting and reporting case study research in software engineering. Empirical Software Engineering, vol. 14, no. 2, p. 131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Schilling, Andreas; Sven Laumer; and Tim Weitzel (2012). Who Will Remain? An Evaluation of Actual Person-Job and Person-Team Fit to Predict Developer Retention in FLOSS Projects. In: HICSS ’12. Proceedings of the 2012 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Wailea, Maui, Hawaii, 4-7 January 2012. pp. 3446–3455.Google Scholar
  71. Seaman, Carolyn B. (1999). Qualitative methods in empirical studies of software engineering. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 557–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Shim, Han Sik; and Gene L. Roth (2007). Sharing tacit knowledge among expert teaching professors and mentees: Considerations for career and technical education teacher educators. Journal of STEM Teacher Education, vol. 44, no. 4, p. 4.Google Scholar
  73. Silva, Jefferson; Igor Scaliante Wiese; Daniel German; Igor Steinmacher; and Marco Gerosa (2017). How Long and How Much: What to Expect from Summer of Code Participants? In: ICSME2017. IEEE International Conference on Software Maintenance and Evolution, Shanghai, China, 17-22 September 2017. Los Alamitos, California, USA, pp. 67–69.Google Scholar
  74. Sim, Susan E.; and Richard C. Holt (1998). The ramp-up problem in software projects: a case study of how software immigrants naturalize. In: ICSE ’98. Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Software Engineering, Kyoto, Japan, 19-25 April 1998. pp. 361–370.Google Scholar
  75. Simon, Steven John (2000). The impact of culture and gender on web sites: an empirical study. SIGMIS Database, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 18–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Singh, Anil; Vikram Bhadauria; Anurag Jain; and Anil Gurung (2013). Role of gender, self-efficacy, anxiety and testing formats in learning spreadsheets. Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 739–746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Singh, Vandana (2012). Newcomer integration and learning in technical support communities for open source software. In: GROUP ’12. Proceedings of the 17th ACM International Conference on Supporting Group Work, Sanibel Island, Florida, 27-31 October 2012. New York, NY, USA, pp. 65–74.Google Scholar
  78. Singh, Vandana; and Lila Holt (2013). Learning and best practices for learning in open-source software communities. Computers & Education, pp. 98–108.Google Scholar
  79. Steinmacher, Igor; Ana Paula Chaves; Tayana Conte; and Marco Aurélio Gerosa (2014). Preliminary empirical identification of barriers faced by newcomers to Open Source Software projects. In: SBES ’14. Proceedings of the 28th Brazilian Symposium on Software Engineering, Maceío, Brazil, 28 September - 3 October 2014. pp. 51–60.Google Scholar
  80. Steinmacher, Igor; Gustavo Pinto; Igor Wiese; and Marco A. Gerosa (2018). Almost There: A Study on Quasi-Contributors in Open-Source Software Projects. In: ICSE’18. 40th International Conference on Software Engineering, Gothenburg, Sweden, 27 May - 3 June 2018. New York, p. 12.Google Scholar
  81. Steinmacher, Igor; Igor Scaliante Wiese; Ana Paula Chaves; and Marco Aurélio Gerosa (2013). Why do newcomers abandon open source software projects? In: CHASE ’13. Proceedings of the 2013 6th International Workshop on Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering, San Francisco, California, 25-25 May 2013. pp. 25–32.Google Scholar
  82. Steinmacher, Igor; Igor Scaliante Wiese; and Marco Aurélio Gerosa (2012). Recommending mentors to software project newcomers. In: RSSE ’12. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Recommendation Systems for Software Engineering, Zürich, Switzerland, 4 June 2012. Washington, DC, USA, pp. 63–67.Google Scholar
  83. Steinmacher, Igor; Marco Aurélio Graciotto Silva; Marco Aurélio Gerosa; and David F. Redmiles (2015a). A systematic literature review on the barriers faced by newcomers to open source software projects. Information and Software Technology, vol. 59, pp. 67–85.Google Scholar
  84. Steinmacher, Igor; Tayana Conte; Marco Aurélio Gerosa; and David F. Redmiles (2015b). Social Barriers Faced by Newcomers Placing Their First Contribution in Open Source Software Projects. In: CSCW ’15. Proceedings of the 18th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing, Vancouver, Canada, 14-18 March 2015. New York, NY, USA, pp. 1379–1392.Google Scholar
  85. Steinmacher, Igor; Tayana Conte; and Marco Aurélio Gerosa (2015c). Understanding and Supporting the Choice of an Appropriate Task to Start With In Open Source Software Communities. In: HICSS ’15. 2015 48th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Kauai, Hawaii, 5-8 January 2015. pp. 5299–5308.Google Scholar
  86. Steinmacher, Igor; Tayana Uchoa Conte; Christoph Treude; and Marco Aurélio Gerosa (2016). Overcoming Open Source Project Entry Barriers with a Portal for Newcomers. In: ICSE ’16. 38th International Conference on Software Engineering,Austin, Texas, 14-22 May 2016. New York, NY, USA, pp. 273–284.Google Scholar
  87. Strauss, Anselm; and Juliet M. Corbin (2007). Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory. SAGE Publications, 3rd edn.Google Scholar
  88. Street, Chris (2004). Examining learning to teach through a social lens: How mentors guide newcomers into a professional commuity of learners. Teacher Education Quarterly, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 7–24.Google Scholar
  89. Terrell, Josh; Andrew Kofink; Justin Middleton; Clarissa Rainear; Emerson Murphy-Hill; Chris Parnin; and Jon Stallings (2017). Gender differences and bias in open source: Pull request acceptance of women versus men. PeerJ Computer Science, vol. 3, p. e111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Turkle, Sherry (2005). The second self: Computers and the human spirit, Simon & Schuster, Inc., New york, NY, USA.Google Scholar
  91. Vasilescu, Bogdan; Daryl Posnett; Baishakhi Ray; Mark G. J. Brand; Alexander Serebrenik; Premkumar Devanbu; and Vladimir Filkov (2015). Gender and tenure diversity in GitHub teams. In: CHI’15. CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Seoul, Korea, 18-23 April 2015. New York, NY, USA, pp. 3789–3798.Google Scholar
  92. Wang, Zhendong; Yi Wang; and David Redmiles (2018). Competence-Confidence Gap: A Threat to Female Developers’ Contribution on GitHub. In: ICSE-SEIS’18. Proceedings of 40th International Conference on Software Engineering: Software Track, Gothenburg, Sweden, 27 May - 3 June, 2018. New York, NY, USA, p. 10.Google Scholar
  93. Wolff-Marting, Vincent; Christoph Hannebauer; and Volker Gruhn (2013). Patterns for tearing down contribution barriers to FLOSS projects. In: SoMeT ’13. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Intelligent Software Methodologies, Tools and Techniques, Budapest, Hungary, 22-24 September 2013. pp. 9–14.Google Scholar
  94. Ye, Yunwen; and Kouichi Kishida (2003). Toward an Understanding of the Motivation Open Source Software Developers. In: ICSE ’03. Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Software Engineering, Portland, Oregon, 3-10 May 2003. Washington, DC, USA, pp. 419–429.Google Scholar
  95. Zhou, Minghui; and Audris Mockus (2015). Who will stay in the FLOSS community? Modelling participant’s initial behaviour. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 82–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Krogh, von (2003). Georg; sebastian spaeth; and karim r. Lakhani. Community, joining, and specialization in open source software innovation: A case study. Research Policy, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 1217–1241.Google Scholar
  97. von Krogh, Georg; and Eric von Hippel (2003). Editorial: Special issue on open source software development. Research Policy, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 1149–1157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Electrical Engineering and Computer ScienceOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA
  2. 2.School of Informatics, Computing, and Cyber SystemsNorthern Arizona UniversityFlagstaffUSA
  3. 3.Department of ComputingFederal University of Technology, ParanáCampo MourãoBrazil

Personalised recommendations