Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW)

, Volume 27, Issue 2, pp 233–265 | Cite as

Studying Infrastructuring Ethnographically

Article

Abstract

This paper is motivated by a methodological interest in how to investigate information infrastructures as an empirical, real-world phenomenon. We argue that research on information infrastructures should not be captive to the prevalent method choice of small-scale and short-term studies. Instead research should address the challenges of empirically studying the heterogeneous, extended and complex phenomena of infrastructuring with an emphasis on the necessarily emerging and open-ended processual qualities of information infrastructures. While existing literature identifies issues that make the study of infrastructuring demanding, few propose ways of addressing these challenges. In this paper we review characteristics of information infrastructures identified in the literature that present challenges for their empirical study. We look to current research in the social sciences, particularly anthropology and science and technology studies (STS) that focus on how to study complex and extended phenomena ethnographically, to provide insight into the study of infrastructuring. Specifically, we reflect on infrastructuring as an object of ethnographic inquiry by building on the notion of “constructing the field.” Recent developments in how to conceptualize the ethnographic field are tied both to longstanding traditions and novel developments in anthropology and STS for studying extended and complex phenomena. Through a discussion of how dimensions of information infrastructures have been addressed practically, methodologically, and theoretically we aim to link the notion of constructing the ethnographic field with views on infrastructuring as a particular kind of object of inquiry. Thus we aim to provide an ethnographically sensitive and methodologically oriented “opening” for an alternative ontology for studying infrastructuring ethnographically.

Keywords

Anthropology Collaborative design Constructing the field Dimensions of information infrastructure Ethnography Information infrastructure Infrastructuring Object of inquiry Reflexivity Science and technology studies 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Karasti acknowledges the funding by Velux Visiting Professor Program of Villum Foundation and the generosity of Prof. Jesper Simonsen that made possible to work on this article as Guest Professor at the Department of People and Technology, Roskilde University, Denmark during 2015-2016. In addition, Karasti acknowledges Academy of Finland funded research project ‘Multi-scoped Infrastructuring’ #285903 that has provided support for finalizing the article in 2016-2017. Blomberg acknowledges the support of IBM Research, particularly the Cloud and Mobile Enterprise Research group, for allowing her time to work on this article.

Notes

  1. 1

    Star and Ruhleder identified eight characteristics of information infrastructure in (Star and Ruhleder 1996, p. 112–113) and a ninth was added in (Star 1999, p. 382; Bowker and Star 1999, p. 35). The nine characteristics are (1) embeddedness, (2) transparency, (3) reach or scope, (4) learned as part of membership, (5) links with conventions of practice, (6) embodiment of standards, (7) built on an installed base, (8) becomes visible upon breakdown, and (9) is fixed in modular increments, not all at once or globally. While there is no one-to-one or single mapping of these characteristics to our five dimensions, we see connections between our dimensions and Star and colleagues’ characteristics: our relational most closely related to (1, 5, 7), invisible to (2, 4, 8), connected to (3, 6), emerging and accreting to (7, 9), and intervention and intentionality to (7, 9).

     

References

  1. Adey, Peter; David Bissell; Kevin Hannam; Peter Merriman; and Mimi Sheller (eds.) (2014). The Routledge Handbook of Mobilities. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  2. Amit, Vered (ed.) (2000). Constructing the field: Ethnographic fieldwork in the contemporary world. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  3. Anand, Nikhil (2015). Accretion. Fieldsights – Theorizing the Contemporary, Cultural Anthropology Online, 24 September. http://www.culanth.org/fieldsights/715-accretion. Accessed 16 December 2015.
  4. Appadurai, Arjun (2014). Foreword. In Stephen Graham; and Colin McFarlane (eds.): Infrastructural lives: Urban infrastructure in context. Oxford, UK: Routledge, pp. xii-xiii.Google Scholar
  5. Appel, Hannah; Nikhil Anand; and Akhil Gupta (2015). Introduction: The Infrastructure Toolbox. Fieldsights – Theorizing the Contemporary, Cultural Anthropology Online, 24 September. http://www.culanth.org/fieldsights/714-introduction-the-infrastructure-toolbox. Accessed 16 December 2015.
  6. Barry, Andrew (2015). Discussion: Infrastructural Times. Fieldsights - Theorizing the Contemporary, Cultural Anthropology Online, September 24, 2015, http://www.culanth.org/fieldsights/724-discussion-infrastructural-times. Accessed 16 December 2015.
  7. Beaulieu, Anne (2010). From co-location to co-presence: Shifts in the use of ethnography for the study of knowledge. Social Studies of Science, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 453–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Björgvinsson, Erling; Pelle Ehn; and Per-Anders Hillgren (2010). Participatory design and “democratizing innovation”. In PDC2010: Proceedings of the 11th Participatory Design Conference, Sydney, Australia, 29 November – 3 December 2010. New York: ACM Press, pp. 41–50.Google Scholar
  9. Björgvinsson, Erling; Pelle Ehn; and Per-Anders Hillgren (2012). Design things and design thinking: Contemporary participatory design challenges. Design Issues, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 101–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Björgvinsson, Erling (2014). The Making of Cultural Commons: Nasty Old Film Distribution and Funding. In Pelle Ehn; Elisabet M. Nilsson; and Richard Topgaard (eds.): Marginal Notes on Innovation, Design, and Democracy. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, pp. 187–225.Google Scholar
  11. Blomberg, Jeanette; and Mark Burrell (2007). An ethnographic approach to design. In Julie Jacko and Andrew Sears (eds.): Human Computer Interaction Handbook: Fundamental, Evolving Technologies and Emerging Applications. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 965–988.Google Scholar
  12. Blomberg, Jeanette; and Helena Karasti (2013). Reflections on 25 years of ethnography in CSCW. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), vol. 22, no. 4–6, pp. 373–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Blomberg, Jeanette; Lucy Suchman; and Randy H. Trigg (1996). Reflections on a Work-Oriented Design Project. Human-Computer Interaction, vol. 11, pp. 237–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bossen, Claus; and Randi Markussen (2010). Infrastructuring and ordering devices in health care: Medication plans and practices on a hospital ward. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 615–637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bowker, Geoffrey C. (1994). Science on the run: Information management and industrial geophysics at Schlumberger, 1920–1940. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  16. Bowker, Geoffrey C.; and Susan L. Star (1999). Sorting Things Out: Classification and Its Consequences. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  17. Bowker, Geoffrey C.; Karen Baker; Florence Millerand; and David Ribes (2010). Toward information infrastructure studies: Ways of knowing in a networked environment. In Jeremy Hunsinger; Lisbeth Klastrup; and Matthew M. Allen (eds.): International Handbook of Internet Research. Heidelberg, DE: Springer, pp. 97–117.Google Scholar
  18. Büscher, Monika; John Urry; and Katian Witchger (eds.) (2011). Mobile Methods. Routledge: New York.Google Scholar
  19. Ciborra, Claudio (ed.) (2000). From Control to Drift: The Dynamics of Corporate Information Infrastructures. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Clarke, Adele E.; and Susan L. Star (2008). The social world framework: A theory/methods package. In Edward J. Hackett; Olga Amsterdamska; Michael E. Lynch; and Judy Wajcman (eds.): The Handbook of Science and Technology Studies. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 113–137.Google Scholar
  21. Clement, Andrew; Brenda McPhail; Karen Louise Smith; and Joseph Ferenbok (2012). Probing, mocking and prototyping: Participatory approaches to identity infrastructuring. In PDC2012: Proceedings of the 12th Participatory Design Conference, Roskilde, Denmark, 12–16 August 2012. New York: ACM Press, pp. 21–30.Google Scholar
  22. Dagiral, Éric; and Ashveen Peerbaye (2016). Making Knowledge in Boundary Infrastructures: Inside and Beyond a Database for Rare Diseases. Science & Technology Studies, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 44–61.Google Scholar
  23. Dalsgaard, Steffen; and Morten Nielsen (2013). Introduction: Time and the Field. Social Analysis, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. De Laet, Marianne; and Annemarie Mol (2000). The Zimbabwe Bush Pump: Mechanics of a Fluid Technology. Social Studies of Science, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 225–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Edwards, Paul N.; Steven J. Jackson; Geoffrey C. Bowker; and Cory P. Knobel (2007). Understanding infrastructure: Dynamics, tensions, and design. Final report of the workshop History and Theory of Infrastructure: Lessons for New Scientific Cyberinfrastructures. NSF, Office of Cyberinfrastructure. http://hdl.handle.net/2027.42/49353. Accessed 16 December 2015.
  26. Edwards, Paul N.; Geoffrey C. Bowker; Steven J. Jackson; and Robin Williams (2009). Introduction: An agenda for infrastructure studies. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 364–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Edwards, Paul N.; Steven J. Jackson; Melissa K. Chalmers; Geoffrey C. Bowker; Christine L. Borgman; David Ribes; Matt Burton; and Scout Calvert (2013). Knowledge Infrastructures: Intellectual Frameworks and Research Challenges. Ann Arbor: Deep Blue. http://knowledgeinfrastructures.org/. Accessed 16 December 2015.Google Scholar
  28. Ehn, Pelle (2008). Participation in Design Things. In PDC2008: Proceedings of the 10th Participatory Design Conference, Bloomington, IN, USA, 30 September – 04 October 2008. New York: ACM Press, pp. 92–101.Google Scholar
  29. Falzon, Mark-Anthony (2009). Introduction. In Falzon, Mark-Anthony (ed.) Multi-sited Ethnography: Theory, Praxis and Locality in Contemporary Research. Surrey, England: Ashgate, pp. 1–23.Google Scholar
  30. Garfinkel, Harold (1967). Studies in ethnomethodology. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  31. Geiger, R. Stuart; and David Ribes (2010). The Work of Sustaining Order in Wikipedia: The Banning of a Vandal. In CSCW2010: Proceedings of the 2010 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Savannah, GA, USA, 06–10 February 2010. New York: ACM Press, pp. 117–126.Google Scholar
  32. Geiger, R. Stuart; and David Ribes (2011). Trace ethnography: Following coordination through documentary practices. In HICSS44: Proceedings of the 44th Annual Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences, Kauai, HI, USA, 04–07 Jan 2011. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Press.Google Scholar
  33. Gupta, Akhil; and James Ferguson (eds.) (1997). Anthropological Locations: Boundaries and Grounds of a Field Science. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  34. Hanseth, Olle (2010). From Systems and Tools to Networks and Infrastructures - From Design to Cultivation. In Jonny Holmström; Mikael Viberg; and Andreas Lund (ed.): Industrial Informatics: Design, Use and Innovation. IGI Global, pp. 122–156.Google Scholar
  35. Harvey, Penelope; Casper Bruun Jensen; and Atsuro Morita (eds.) (2017). Infrastructures and Social Complexity. A Companion. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  36. Heidegger, Martin (1962). Being and Time. New York: Harper. Originally published in 1927.Google Scholar
  37. Henriksen, Dixi Louise (2002). Locating virtual field sites and a dispersed object of research. Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 31–45.Google Scholar
  38. Hillgren, Per-Anders; Anna Seravalli; and Anders Emilson (2011). Prototyping and infrastructuring in design for social innovation. CoDesign, vol. 7, no. 3–4, pp. 169–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hine, Christine (2007). Multi-sited Ethnography as a Middle Range Methodology for Contemporary STS. Science, Technology & Human Values, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 652–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hine, Christine (2008). Systematics as Cyberscience. Computers, Change, and Continuity in Science. Cambridge, London: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  41. Hine, Christine (2009). How can qualitative Internet researcher define the boundaries of their projects? In Annette N. Markham; and Nancy K. Baym (eds.): Internet inquiry: conversations about method. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, pp. 1–20.Google Scholar
  42. Jackson, Steven J. (2014). Rethinking Repair, in Tarleton Gillespie; Pablo J. Boczkowski; and Kirsten A. Foot (eds.) Media Technologies: Essays on Communication, Materiality and Society. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 221–307.Google Scholar
  43. Jackson, Steven J. (2015). Repair. Fieldsights - Theorizing the Contemporary, Cultural Anthropology Online, September 24, 2015, http://www.culanth.org/fieldsights/720-repair. Accessed 16 December 2015.
  44. Jackson, Steven J.; and Ayse Buyuktur (2014). Who Killed WATERS? Mess, Method, and Forensic Explanation in the Making and Unmaking of Large-scale Science Networks. Science Technology Human Values, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 285–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jackson, Steven J.; Stephanie Steinhardt; and Ayse Buyuktur (2013). Why CSCW needs science policy (and vice-versa). In CSCW2013: Proceedings of the 16th Computer-Supported Cooperative Work Conference, San Antonio, TX, USA, 23–27 February 2013. New York: ACM Press, pp. 1113–1124.Google Scholar
  46. Jackson, Steven J.; Tarleton Gillespie; and Sandra Payette (2014). The Policy Knot: Reintegrating Policy, Practice and Design in CSCW Studies of Social Computing. In CSCW2014: Proceedings of the 17th Computer Supported Cooperative Work Conference, Baltimore, MD, USA, 15–19 February 2014. New York: ACM Press, pp. 588–602.Google Scholar
  47. Jensen, Casper Bruun (2007) Infrastructural fractals: Revisiting the micro – macro distinction in social theory. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, vol. 25, pp. 832–850.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jensen, Casper Bruun (2010). Ontologies for developing things: Making health care futures through technology. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
  49. Jensen, Casper Bruun; and Britt Ross Winthereik (2013). Monitoring Movements in Development Aid: Recursive Partnerships and Infrastructures. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  50. Kaltenbrunner, Wolfgang (2015). Infrastructural inversion as a generative resource in digital scholarship. Science as Culture, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kaltenbrunner, Wolfgang (2017). Digital Infrastructure for the Humanities in Europe and the US: Governing Scholarship through Coordinated Tool Development. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 275–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Karasti, Helena (2014). Infrastructuring in participatory design. In PDC'14: Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Participatory Design, Windhoek, Namibia, 06–10 October 2014. New York: ACM Press, pp. 141–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Karasti, Helena; and Karen Baker (2004). Infrastructuring for the long-term: Ecological information management. In HICSS37: Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Big Island, HI, 5–8 Jan 2004. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Press.Google Scholar
  54. Karasti, Helena; and Karen S. Baker (2008). Community Design: Growing One’s Own Information Infrastructure. In PDC2008: Proceedings of the 10th Participatory Design Conference, Bloomington, IN, USA, 30 September – 04 October 2008. New York: ACM Press, pp. 217–220.Google Scholar
  55. Karasti, Helena; and Anna-Liisa Syrjänen (2004). Artful infrastructuring in two cases of community PD. In PDC2004: Proceedings of the Eighth Participatory Design Conference, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 27–31 July 2004. New York: ACM Press, pp. 20–30.Google Scholar
  56. Karasti, Helena; Karen S. Baker; and Eija Halkola (2006). Enriching the Notion of Data Curation in e-Science: Data Managing and Information Infrastructuring in the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 321–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Karasti, Helena; Karen S. Baker; and Florence Millerand (2010). Infrastructure Time: Long-Term Matters in Collaborative Development. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), vol. 19, no. 3–4, pp. 377–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Karasti, Helena; Florence Millerand; Christine M. Hine; and Geoffrey C. Bowker (2016a). Knowledge Infrastructures: Part I. Science & Technology Studies, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 2–12.Google Scholar
  59. Karasti, Helena; Florence Millerand; Christine M. Hine; and Geoffrey C. Bowker (2016b). Knowledge Infrastructures: Part IV. Science & Technology Studies, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 2–9.Google Scholar
  60. Kee, Kerk F. and Larry D. Browning (2010). The dialectical tensions in the funding infrastructure of cyberinfrastructure. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 283–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Knorr-Cetina, Karin D.; and Urs Bruegger (2002). Global Microstructures: The Virtual Societies of Financial Markets. American Journal of Sociology, vol. 107, no. 4, pp. 905–950.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Korn, Matthias and Amy Voida (2015). Creating friction: Infrastructuring civic engagement in everyday life. In Proceedings of the 5th Decennial Aarhus Conference: Critical Alternatives, Aarhus, Denmark, 17–21 August 2015. Aarhus, Denmark: Aarhus University Press, pp. 145–156.Google Scholar
  63. Larkin, Brian (2013). The Politics and Poetics of Infrastructure. Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 42, pp. 327–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Latour, Bruno (1987). Science in action: How to follow scientists and engineers through society. Cambridge, MS: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  65. Latour, Bruno (1993). We have never been modern. New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf.Google Scholar
  66. Latour, Bruno (1999). Pandora’s hope – essays on the reality of science studies. Cambridge, MS: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  67. Law, John (2004). After Method: Mess in Social Science Research. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  68. Le Dantec, Christopher A.; and Carl DiSalvo (2013) Infrastructuring and the formation of publics in participatory design. Social Studies of Science, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 241–-264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Marcus, George E. (1995). Ethnography in/of the world system: The emergence of multi-sited ethnography. Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 24, pp. 95–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Marcus, George E. (1998). Ethnography through Thick and Thin. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Marcus, George E. (2007). Collaborative Imaginaries. Taiwan Journal of Anthropology, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1–-17.Google Scholar
  72. Mayernik, Matthew S.; Jillian C. Wallis; and Christine L. Borgman (2013). Unearthing the Infrastructure: Humans and Sensors in Field-Based Scientific Research. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 65–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Menendez-Blanco, Maria; Antonella De Angeli; and Maurizio Teli (2017). Biography of a Design Project through the Lens of a Facebook Page. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 71–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Mol, Annemarie (2002). The Body Multiple: Ontology in Medical Practice. Raleigh, NC: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Mol, Annemarie; and John Law (2002). Complexities: An Introduction. In John Law; and Annemarie Mol (eds.): Complexities: Social Studies of Knowledge Practices. Raleigh, NC: Duke University Press, pp. 1–22.Google Scholar
  76. Mongili, Alessandro; and Giuseppina Pellegrino (eds.) (2014). Information Infrastructure(s): Boundaries, Ecologies, Multiplicity. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.Google Scholar
  77. Monteiro, Eric; Neil Pollock; Olle Hanseth; and Robin Williams (2013). From Artefacts to Infrastructures. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), vol. 2, no. 4–6), pp. 575–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Monteiro, Eric; Neil Pollock; and Robin Williams (eds.) (2014). Innovation in Information Infrastructures: Introduction to the Special Issue. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, vol. 15, no. 4–5, pp. i–x.Google Scholar
  79. Nardi, Bonnie A.; and Yrjö Engeström (1999). A web on the wind: The structure of invisible work. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), vol. 8, no. 1–2, pp. 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Parmiggiani, Elena (2015). Integration by Infrastructuring: The Case of Subsea Environmental Monitoring in Oil and Gas Offshore Operations. Doctoral dissertation. Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Computer and Information Science. Trondheim, Norway: NTNU-trykk.Google Scholar
  81. Parmiggiani, Elena (2017). This Is Not a Fish: On the Scale and Politics of Infrastructure Design Studies. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 205–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Parmiggiani, Elena; and Eric Monteiro (2016). A Measure of ‘Environmental Happiness’: Infrastructuring Environmental Risk in Oil and Gas Off shore Operations. Science & Technology Studies, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 30–-51.Google Scholar
  83. Parmiggiani, Elena; Eric Monteiro; and Vidar Hepsø (2015). The digital coral: Infrastructuring environmental monitoring. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 423–-460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Pipek, Volkmar; and Volker Wulf (2009). Infrastructuring: Toward an integrated perspective on the design and use of information technology. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 447–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Pollock, Neil; and Robin Williams (2010). e-Infrastructures: How Do We Know and Understand Them? Strategic Ethnography and the Biography of Artefacts. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), 19(6), 521–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Pors, Jens K.; Dixi Louise Henriksen; Britt Ross Winthereik; and Marc Berg (2002). Challenging divisions: Exploring the intersections of ethnography and intervention in IS research. Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 3–7.Google Scholar
  87. Ribes, David (2014). Ethnography of Scaling Or, How to fit a national research infrastructure in the room. In Proceedings of the CSCW2014 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Baltimore, MD, USA, 15–19 February 2014. New York: ACM Press, pp. 377–391.Google Scholar
  88. Ribes, David; and Thomas A. Finholt (2009). The long now of technology infrastructure: articulating tensions in development. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 375–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Ribes, David; and Charlotte P. Lee (2010). Sociotechnical studies of cyberinfrastructure and e-research: Current themes and future trajectories. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), vol. 19, no. 3–4, pp. 231–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Star, Susan Leigh (1999). The Ethnography of Infrastructure. American Behavioral Scientist, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 377–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Star, Susan Leigh (2002). Infrastructure and ethnographic practice: Working on the fringes. Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 107–122.Google Scholar
  92. Star, Susan Leigh; and Geoffrey C. Bowker (2002). How to infrastructure? In L.A. Lievrouw and S.L. Livingstone (eds.) The Handbook of New Media. Social Shaping and Consequences of ICTs. London: Sage, pp. 151–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Star, Susan Leigh; and Karen Ruhleder (1994). Steps towards an ecology of infrastructure: Complex problems in design and access for large-scale collaborative systems. In Proceedings of the CSCW1994 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA, 22–26 October 1994. New York: ACM Press, pp. 253–264.Google Scholar
  94. Star, Susan Leigh; and K. Ruhleder (1996). Steps toward an Ecology of Infrastructure: Borderlands of Design and Access for Large Information Spaces. Information Systems Research, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 111–-134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Star, Susan Leigh; and Anselm Strauss (1999). Layers of Silence, Arenas of Voice: The Ecology of Visible and Invisible Work. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), vol. 8, no. 1–-2, pp. 9–-30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Strathern, Marilyn (1989). Between a Melanesianist and a deconstructive feminist. Australian Feminist Studies, vol. 10, pp. 49–-69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Strathern, Marilyn (1992). Parts and wholes: Refiguring relationships in a post-plural world. In Adam Kuper (ed.): Conceptualizing Society. London: Routledge, pp. 75–-104.Google Scholar
  98. Strathern, Marilyn (1995). The Relation: Issues in Complexity and Scale. Cambridge: Prickly Pear Press.Google Scholar
  99. Suchman, Lucy (1995). Making Work Visible. Communications of the ACM, vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 56–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Tilson, David; Kalle Lyytinen; and Carsten Sørensen (2010). Digital Infrastructures: The Missing IS Research Agenda. Information Systems Research, 21(4): 748–-759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Vertesi, Janet (2014). Seamful Spaces: Heterogeneous Infrastructures in Interaction. Science, Technology, & Human Values, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 264–-284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Wagenknecht, Susann; and Matthias Korn (2016). Hacking as Transgressive Infrastructuring: Mobile Phone Networks and the German Chaos Computer Club. In Proceedings of the CSCW2016 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, San Francisco, CA, USA, 27 February – 02 March 2016. New York: ACM Press, pp. 1104–-1117.Google Scholar
  103. Williams, Robin; and Neil Pollock (2012). Research Commentary —Moving Beyond the Single Site Implementation Study: How (and Why) We Should Study the Biography of Packaged Enterprise Solutions. Information Systems Research, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Winthereik, Britt Ross; and Helen Verran (2012). Ethnographic stories as generalizations that intervene. Science Studies, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 37–-51.Google Scholar
  105. Winthereik, Britt Ross; Antoinette de Bont; and Marc Berg (2002). Accessing the world of doctors and their computers: ‘Making available’ objects of study and the research site through ethnographic engagement, Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 47–-58.Google Scholar
  106. Wong, Richmond Y.; and Steven J. Jackson (2015). Wireless Visions: Infrastructure, Imagination, and US Spectrum Policy. In Proceedings of the CSCW2015 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 14–18 March 2015. New York: ACM Press, pp. 105–-115.Google Scholar
  107. Zimmerman, Ann; and Thomas A. Finholt (2007). Growing an infrastructure: The role of gateway organizations in cultivating new communities of users. In GROUP2007: Proceedings of the 2007 international ACM conference on Supporting group work, Sanibel Island, FL, USA, 04–07 November 2007. New York: ACM Press, pp. 239–248.Google Scholar
  108. Zittrain, Jonathan L. (2006). The Generative Internet. Harvard Law Review, vol. 119, pp. 1974–2040.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.INTERACT Research UnitUniversity of OuluOuluFinland
  2. 2.IBM ResearchSan JoseUSA

Personalised recommendations