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Turking in a Global Labour Market

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This paper examines how working in the global labour market of Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) impacts upon and is understood by two different groups of workers. To do this we report on two qualitative studies; one of US and another of Indian crowdworkers (or ‘Turkers’) that we analysed from an ethnomethodological orientation. Our data is naturalistic and comes from a variety of sources—interviews, observations and forum posts—where Turkers describe their work, and their understandings of that work and of the transnational market they work in. We compare and contrast their situations, their reflections on the marketplace and its global reach, and we take a look at their understandings of one another. Our focus is on ‘the work to making turking work’ (Martin et al. 2014). That is, the work that turkers do to organise and make sense of their work as they operate in the AMT marketplace, such that they can do so effectively. AMT is a technologically mediated marketplace—that is the distribution, completion and payment of work is done online, almost completely through the AMT platform. The design of the platform has important consequences for how Turkers experience and understand the market (including its global or transnational nature). We discuss how our findings relate to a variety of CSCW issues and provide an initial examination of how they relate to globalisation both as a mundanely experienced phenomenon and as a topic of academic interest. We finish the article by drawing on our own experiences in research and design to look at how technology can be used to intervene in a market like this to try to address imbalances in power and agency between employers and workers.

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  1. See Felsteiner (2011) for a detailed examination of wages and the legal issues.

  2. Ipeirotis offers more up-to-date and dynamic demographic and statistical data with MTurk Tracker:

  3. “The current federal minimum wage is $7.25 per hour.” Source:


  5. - page 43, $12,119 for a single person under 65 years of age.

  6. Suddenly Amazon made electronic payments available to Indian Turkers in March 2015, in a move that we welcome, finally redressing this asymmetry:

  7. One of the clearest benefits of the Masters qualification is that Turkers do not have to complete captchas on many tasks that usually require them – this saves quite a lot of time over repetitive bulk HITs.


  9. Although at the time of writing we have heard of considerable rumours about the widespread closing of Indian accounts. Unfortunately the lack of transparency at Amazon means it is impossible at this stage to verify this.

  10. MMOs provide significant commercial opportunities (selling virtual currency and items). It has been reported that in e.g. India and China people work to accumulate these under duress so they can be sold to other gamers to profit ‘ringleaders’. Aleppo suggests something similar may be happening with AMT.

  11. It was reported to us that a steady flow of unreasonable requests (i.e. find me good HITs, get my suspension lifted) accompanied by some abuse had led to a blanket ban [personal communication from Turker Nation admin]. It seems that this was a product of misunderstanding on some Indian Turkers’ part (that the forum had an influential relationship with AMT, that US workers did not need the money so much).

  12. Source: State University of New York, Levin Institute:




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Thanks to all the members of Turker Nation and our Indian Turkers for participating in and enabling this research.

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Correspondence to David Martin.

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Martin, D., O’Neill, J., Gupta, N. et al. Turking in a Global Labour Market. Comput Supported Coop Work 25, 39–77 (2016).

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