Identifying Seekers and Suppliers in Social Media Communities to Support Crisis Coordination
- 1.3k Downloads
Effective crisis management has long relied on both the formal and informal response communities. Social media platforms such as Twitter increase the participation of the informal response community in crisis response. Yet, challenges remain in realizing the formal and informal response communities as a cooperative work system. We demonstrate a supportive technology that recognizes the existing capabilities of the informal response community to identify needs (seeker behavior) and provide resources (supplier behavior), using their own terminology. To facilitate awareness and the articulation of work in the formal response community, we present a technology that can bridge the differences in terminology and understanding of the task between the formal and informal response communities. This technology includes our previous work using domain-independent features of conversation to identify indications of coordination within the informal response community. In addition, it includes a domain-dependent analysis of message content (drawing from the ontology of the formal response community and patterns of language usage concerning the transfer of property) to annotate social media messages. The resulting repository of annotated messages is accessible through our social media analysis tool, Twitris. It allows recipients in the formal response community to sort on resource needs and availability along various dimensions including geography and time. Thus, computation indexes the original social media content and enables complex querying to identify contents, players, and locations. Evaluation of the computed annotations for seeker-supplier behavior with human judgment shows fair to moderate agreement. In addition to the potential benefits to the formal emergency response community regarding awareness of the observations and activities of the informal response community, the analysis serves as a point of reference for evaluating more computationally intensive efforts and characterizing the patterns of language behavior during a crisis.
Key wordscoordination crisis informatics cooperative crisis response crisis response coordination organizational sensemaking psycholinguistics spatio-temporal analysis twitris seeker-supplier behavior semantic web
This work is supported by the NSF (IIS-1111182, 09/01/2011 - 08/31/2014) SoCS program. We thank the NSF for their generous support, our colleagues for the valuable comments on the draft and preliminary discussion about designing a coordination analysis framework, James Gruenberg from Wright State’s Calamityville for valuable insight into disaster management, and research assistants, especially Dylan Clericus (undergraduate), Meagan Newman, and Harry Abramovitz.
- Auer, Sören, Christian Bizer, Georgi Kobilarov, Jens Lehmann, Richard Cyganiak, and Zachary Ives (2007). Dbpedia: A Nucleus for a Web of Open Data. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
- Baer, Drake (2012). As Sandy Became #Sandy, Emergency Services Got Social. Fast Company, November 2012. http://www.fastcompany.com/3002837sandy-became-sandy-emergency-services-got-social. Accessed 19 June 2014.
- Banks, Ken and Erik Hensman (2009). FrontlineSMS and Ushahidi: A Demo. In Proceedings of the Third Information and Communication Technologies and Development, Doha, Qatar, 17–19 April 2009. IEEE, p. 484.Google Scholar
- Bennett, Kevin. B. and John Flach (1992). Graphical Displays: Implications for Divided Attention, Focused Attention and Problem Solving. Human Factors, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 513–533.Google Scholar
- Bowker, Geoffrey C. and Susan Leigh Star (2000). Sorting Things Out: Classification and Its Consequences. Boston: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Cheng, Zhiyuan, James Caverlee, and Kyumin Lee (2010). You are where you Tweet: A Content-Based Approach to Geo-Locating Twitter Users. In Proceedings of the 19th ACM international conference on Information and knowledge management, Toronto, Canada, 26–30 October 2010. New York: ACM Press, pp. 759–768.Google Scholar
- Clark, Herbert H. and Susan E. Brennan (1991). Grounding in Communication. Perceptions on Socially Shared Cognition, vol. 13, pp. 127–149.Google Scholar
- De Marneffe, Marie-Catherine, Bill MacCartney, and Christpher D. Manning (2006). Generating Typed Dependency Parses from Phrase Structure Parses. In Proceedings of the 5th Edition of the International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), Genoa, Italy, 22–28 May 2006. pp. 449–454.Google Scholar
- Dietrich, Ranier (2003). Communication in High Risk Environments. Hamburg, Germany: Helmut Buske Verlag.Google Scholar
- Dynes, Russell R. and Enrico Quarantelli (1970). Interorganizational Relations in Communities under Stress. 7th World Congress of Sociology, Varna, Bulgaria, 14–19 September 1970. Varna, Bulgaria: Bulgarian Organizing Committee.Google Scholar
- FEMA (2009). Incident Management Handbook. Federal Emergency Management Agency. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
- FEMA (2012). Community Emergency Response Team Basic Training Participant Manual. Federal Emergency Management Agency, June 2012. https://www.fema.gov/library/viewRecord.do?id=6137. Accessed 19 June 2014.
- Fessler, Pam (2013): Thanks, but No Thanks: When Post-disaster Donations Overwhelm. NPR, January 2013. http://www.npr.org/2013/01/09/168946170/thanks-but-no-thanks-when-post-disaster-donations-overwhelm. Accessed 19 June 2014.
- Finkel, Jenny Rose, Trond Grenager, and Christopher D. Manning (2005). Incorporating Non-local Information into Information Extraction Systems by Gibbs Sampling. In Proceedings of the 43nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL 2005), Ann Arbor, MI, 25–30 June 2005. Stroudsburg, PA: Association for Computational Linguistics, pp. 363–370.Google Scholar
- Flach, John M., Debra Steele-Johnson, Valerie L. Shalin, and Glenn C. Hamilton (2013). Coordination and Control in Emergency Response. In Badiru & Racz (eds.): Handbook of Emergency Response: A Human Factors and Systems Engineering Approach (533–548). New York: Taylor & Francis, pp. 533–548.Google Scholar
- Heath, Christian and Paul Luff (1992). Collaboration and Control: Crisis Management and Multimedia Technology in London Underground Line Control Rooms. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): An International Journal, 1, nos. 1–2, pp. 69–94.Google Scholar
- Higgenbotham, James (1997). The Semantics of Questions. In S. Lappin (ed.): The Handbook of Contemporary Semantic Theory. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.Google Scholar
- Homeland Security (2010). Incident management handbook. U.S. Department of Homeland Security, January 2010.Google Scholar
- Honeycutt, Courtenay and Susan C. Herring (2009). Beyond Microblogging: Conversation and Collaboration Via Twitter. In System Sciences, 2009. HICSS’09. 42nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Hawaii, 5–8 January 2009. The IEEE Computer Society Press, pp. 1–10.Google Scholar
- Imran, Muhammad, Ioanna Lykourentzou, and Carlos Castillo (2013). Engineering Crowdsourced Stream Processing Systems. arXiv preprint arXiv:1310.5463. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/emergency_response/downloads/hazard/Incident%20Management%20Handbook6-09.pdf. Accessed 19 June 2014.
- Jihan, Satria Hutomo and Aviv Segev (2013). Context Ontology for Humanitarian Assistance in Crisis Response. In T. Comes, F. Fiedrich, S. Fortier, J. Geldermann, and T. Müller (eds.): Proceedings of the 10th International ISCRAM Conference, Baden-Baden, Germany. Karlsruhe, Germany: KIT, pp. 526–535.Google Scholar
- Keßler, Carsten, C. J. Hendrix, and Minu Limbu (2013). Humanitarian eXchange Language (HXL) Situation and Response Standard. Humanitarian Response, January 2013. http://hxl.humanitarianresponse.info/ns/index.html. Accessed 19 June 2014.
- Latonero, Mark, and Irina Shklovski (2011). Emergency Management, Twitter, and Social Media Evangelism. International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM), vol. 3, no.4, pp. 1–16.Google Scholar
- Lave, Jean and Etienne Wenger (1991). Situated Learning. Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press.Google Scholar
- Levin, Beth (1993). English Verb Classes and Alternations: A Preliminary Investigation, Conversation Analysis. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Limbu, Minu (2012): Management Of A Crisis (MOAC) Vocabulary Specification. ObservedChange, January 2012. http://observedchange.com/moac/ns/. Accessed 19 June 2014.
- Livingston, Eric (1987). Making Sense of Ethnomethodology. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, pp. 86–87.Google Scholar
- Malone, Thomas W. and Kevin Crowston (1990). What is Coordination Theory and How Can it Help Design Cooperative Work Systems?. In Proceedings of the 1990 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work, 7–10 October 1990, Los Angeles, CA. New York: ACM Press, pp. 357–370.Google Scholar
- Marz, Nathan (2011): Twitter’s Storm: Distributed Real-Time Computation System. The Apache Software Foundation, 2011. http://storm.incubator.apache.org/documentation/Home.html. Accessed 19 June 2014.
- Mathioudakis, Michael and Nick Koudas (2010). Twittermonitor: Trend Detection over the Twitter Stream. In Proceedings of the 2010 ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data,Indianapolis, IN, 6–11 June 2010. New York: ACM, pp. 1155–1158.Google Scholar
- Myers, Lisa (2005): What Went Wrong in Katrina’s Wake?. NBC News Investigates, September 2005. http://www.nbcnews.com/id/9231926/ns/nbc_nightly_news_with_brian_williams-nbc_news_investigates/t/what-went-wrong-katrinas-wake/. Accessed 19 June 2014.
- Nagarajan, Meenakshi, Karthik Gomadam, Amit P. Sheth, Ajith Ranabahu, Raghava Mutharaju, and Ashutosh Jadhav (2009). Spatio-Temporal-Thematic Analysis of Citizen-Sensor Data - Challenges and Experiences. In Proceedings from the Tenth International Conference on Web Information Systems Engineering, 5–7 October 2009. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 539–553.Google Scholar
- Palen, Leysia and Sophia B. Liu (2007). Citizen Communications in Crisis: Anticipating a Future of ICT-Supported Public Participation. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 30 April – 3 May 2007, San Jose, CA. New York: ACM Press, pp. 727–736.Google Scholar
- Palen, Leysia, Kenneth M. Anderson, Gloria Mark, James Martin, Douglas Sicker, Martha Palmer, and Dirk A. Grunwald (2010). Vision for Technology-Mediated Support for Public Participation & Assistance in Mass Emergencies & Disasters. In Proceedings of the 2010 ACM-BCS Visions of Computer Science Conference, 13–16 April 2010, Edinburgh, Scotland. Swinton, UK: British Computer Society, p. 8.Google Scholar
- Pearson, Christine M. and Judith A. Clair (1998) Reframing Crisis Management. Academy of Management Review, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 59–76.Google Scholar
- Perng, Sung-Yueh, Monika Büscher, Ragnhild Halvorsrud, Lisa Wood, Michael Stiso, Leonardo Ramirez, and Amro Al-Akkad (2012). Peripheral Response: Microblogging During the 22/7/2011 Norway Attacks. In L. Rothkrantz, J. Ristvej, and Z. Franco (eds.): Proceedings from the 9th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response Management (ISCRAM), Vancouver, Canada. 22–25 April 2012. Vancouver, Canada: Simon Fraser University.Google Scholar
- Perrow, Charles (1984). Normal Accidents: Living with High-Risk Technologies. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
- Pohl, Daniela, Abdelhamid Bouchachia, and Hermann Hellwagner (2012). Automatic Identification of Crisis-Related Subevents Using Clustering. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications (ICLMA), 12–15 December 2012, Boca Raton, FL. IEEE, pp. 333–383Google Scholar
- Protégé (2013): Protégé: Ontology Editor and Knowledge-Base Framework. Stanford Center for Biomedical Informatics Research, Stanford University. http://protege.stanford.edu/. Accessed 30 March 2013.
- Purohit, Hemant and Amit P. Sheth (2013a). Twitris v3: From Citizen Sensing to Analysis, Coordination and Action. In Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Weblogs and Social Media, 8–11 July 2013, Cambridge, MA. Palo Alto, CA: The AAAI Press, pp. 746–747.Google Scholar
- Purohit, Hemant, Jitendra Ajmera, Sachindra Joshi, Ashish Verma, and Amit P. Sheth (2012). Finding Influential Authors in Brand-Page Communities. In Proceedings of the 6th AAAI International Conference on Weblogs and Social Media (ICWSM), 4–7 June 2012, Dublin, Ireland. Palo Alto, CA: AAAI Press, pp. 551–554.Google Scholar
- Purohit, Hemant, Carlos Castillo, Patrick Meier, and Amit P. Sheth (2013b). Crisis Mapping, Citizen Sensing and Social Media Analytics: Leveraging Citizen Roles for Crisis Response. In Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Weblogs and Social Media, Cambridge, MA, 8–11 July 2013. Palo Alto, CA: The AAAI Press, p. xxiii.Google Scholar
- Purohit, Hemant, Carlos Castillo, Fernando Diaz, Amit P. Sheth, and Patrick Meier (2014). Emergency-Relief Coordination on Social Media: Automatically Matching Resource Requests and Offers. First Monday, vol. 19, no. 1.Google Scholar
- Quarantelli, Enrico Louis (2008). Conventional Beliefs and Counterintuitive Realities. Social Research, vol. 75, no. 3, pp. 873–904.Google Scholar
- RDF Core Working Group (2004). Resource Description Framework (RDF) for Data Inter-Change on the Web. W3C, 25 February 2004. http://www.w3.org/RDF/. Accessed 24 June 2014.
- Reuter, Christian, Oliver Heger and Volkmar Pipek (2013). Combining Real and Virtual Volunteers Through Social Media. In T. Comes, F. Fiedrich, S. Fortier, J. Gelderman, and T. Müller, (eds.): Proceedings of the 10th International ISCRAM Conference, Baden-Baden, Germany. Karlsruhe, Germany: KIT, pp. 780–790.Google Scholar
- Schmidt, Kjeld and Liam Bannon (1992). Taking CSCW Seriously: Supporting Articulation Work. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW): An International Journal, vol. 1, nos. 1–2, March 1992 pp. 7–40.Google Scholar
- Searle, John R. (1975). Indirect Speech Acts. In P. Cole & J. L. Morgan (eds.): Syntax and Semantics, 3: Speech Acts. New York: Academic Press, pp. 59–82.Google Scholar
- Sheth, Amit P. (2009). Citizen Sensing, Social Signals, and Enriching Human Experience. IEEE Internet Computing, vol. 13, no. 4, July/August 2009, pp. 80–85.Google Scholar
- Sheth, Amit P., Ashutosh Sopan Jadhav, Pavan Kapanipathi, Lu Chen, Hemant Purohit, Alan Gary Smith, Wenbo Wang (in press). Twitris- A System for Collective Social Intelligence. In R. Alhajj and J. Rokne (eds): Encyclopedia of Social Network Analysis and Mining (ESNAM). USA: Springer Reference.Google Scholar
- Sicker, Douglas C., Dirk Grunwald, Lisa Blumensaadt, Leysia Palen, and Kenneth M. Anderson (2010). Policy Issues Facing the Use of Social Network Information During Times of Crisis. The 38th Annual Telecommunications Policy Research Conference (TPRC) for Public Safety and Emergency session, Arlington, Virginia, 1–3 October 2010. Google Scholar
- Simon, Herbert A. (1962). The Architecture of Complexity. Springer US. pp. 457–476.Google Scholar
- Smith, Alan Gary, Amit P. Sheth, Ashutosh Sopan Jadhav, Hemant Purohit, Lu Chen, Michael Cooney, Pavan Kapanipathi, Pramod Anantharam, Pramod Koneru, and Wenbo Wang (2012). Twitris+: Social Media Analytics Platform for Effective Coordination. In the NSF Social Computational Systems (SoCS) Symposium, Ann Arbor, MI, 16–18 July 2012.Google Scholar
- Starbird, Kate (2011). Digital Volunteerism during Disaster : Crowdsourcing Information Processing. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 7–12 May 2011. New York: ACM Publications, pp. 1071–1080.Google Scholar
- Starbird, Kate and Jeannie Stamberger (2010). Tweak the Tweet: Leveraging Microblogging Proliferation with a Prescriptive Grammar to Support Citizen Reporting. In S. French, B. Tomaszewski, and C. Zobel (eds.): The 7th International Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Conference, Seattle, WA, USA, May 2010. USA: bvdwalle.Google Scholar
- Starbird, Kate, Leysia Palen, Amanda L. Hughes, and Sarah Vieweg (2010). Chatter on the Red: What Hazards Threat Reveals about the Social Life of Microblogged Information. In Proceedings of the ACM 2010 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), Savannah, GA. New York: ACM Press, pp. 241–250.Google Scholar
- Starbird, Kate and Leysia Palen (2010). Pass It On?: Retweeting in Mass Emergencies. In S. French, B. Tomaszewski, and C. Zobel (eds.): The 7th International Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Conference, Seattle, WA, USA, May 2010. USA: bvdwalle.Google Scholar
- Starbird, Kate, Grace Muzny, and Leysia Palen (2012). Learning from the Crowd : Collaborative Filtering Techniques for Identifying On-the-Ground Twitterers during Mass Disruptions. In L. Rothkrantz, J. Ristvej, and Z. Frenco (eds.): Proceedings from the 9th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response Management (ISCRAM), Vancouver, Canada, 22–24 April 2012. Vancouver, Canada: Simon Fraser University.Google Scholar
- Swienton, Raymond E. and Italo Subbarao (eds.) (2012). Basic Disaster Life Support, Course Manual (3rd Ed.). USA: American Medical Association.Google Scholar
- Tsukayama, Hayley (2014): Twitter Turns 7: Users Send over 400 Million Tweets Per Day. The Washington Post, 21 March 2013. http://articles.washingtonpost.com/2013-03-21/business/37889387_1_tweets-jack-dorsey-twitter. Accessed 19 June 2014.
- Twitter Developer (2013): REST API Rate Limiting in v1.1. Twitter, 15 March 2013. https://dev.twitter.com/docs/rate-limiting/1.1. Accessed 24 June 2013.
- Varga, István, Motoki Sano, Kentaro Torisawa, Chikara Hashimoto, Kiyonori Ohtake, Takao Kawai, Jong-Hoon Oh, and Stijn De Saeger (2013). Aid is Out There: Looking for Help from Tweets during a Large Scale Disaster. In Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Sofia, Bulgaria, 4–9 August 2013. Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., vol. 1, pp. 1619–1629.Google Scholar
- Verity, Andrej (ed.) (2011): OCHA: Lessons Learned Report on the Collaboration with Volunteer and Technical Community in Libya and Japan. Digital Humanitarian Network, November 2011. http://digitalhumanitarians.com/sites/default/files/resource-field_media/OCHALessonsLearnedCollaborationwithVTCsinLibyaandJapanFinalNov2011.pdf. Accessed 23 June 2014.
- Vieweg, Sarah, Amanda L. Hughes, Kate Starbird, and Leysia Palen (2010). Microblogging during Two Natural Hazards Events : What Twitter May Contribute to Situational Awareness. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Atlanta, GA, 10–15 April 2010. New York: ACM Press, pp. 1079–1088.Google Scholar