Crowdsourcing is not a new practice but it is a concept that has gained substantial attention during recent disasters. Drawing from previous work in the crisis informatics, disaster sociology, and computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) literature, this paper first explains recent conceptualizations of crowdsourcing and how crowdsourcing is a way of leveraging disaster convergence. The CSCW concept of “articulation work” is introduced as an interpretive frame for extracting the salient dimensions of “crisis crowdsourcing.” Then, a series of vignettes are presented to illustrate the evolution of crisis crowdsourcing that spontaneously emerged after the 2010 Haiti earthquake and evolved to more established forms of public engagement during crises. The best practices extracted from the vignettes clarified the efforts to formalize crisis crowdsourcing through the development of innovative interfaces designed to support the articulation work needed to facilitate spontaneous volunteer efforts. Extracting these best practices led to the development of a conceptual framework that unpacks the key dimensions of crisis crowdsourcing. The Crisis Crowdsourcing Framework is a systematic, problem-driven approach to determining the why, who, what, when, where, and how aspects of a crowdsourcing system. The framework also draws attention to the social, technological, organizational, and policy (STOP) interfaces that need to be designed to manage the articulation work involved with reducing the complexity of coordinating across these key dimensions. An example of how to apply the framework to design a crowdsourcing system is offered with a discussion on the implications for applying this framework as well as the limitations of this framework. Innovation is occurring at the social, technological, organizational, and policy interfaces enabling crowdsourcing to be operationalized and integrated into official products and services.
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The research reported here is supported through a U.S. Geological Survey Mendenhall Postdoctoral Fellowship awarded to Sophia B. Liu. The author would like to thank Paul Earle and Barbara Poore for their early involvement and guidance on this manuscript, the research participants for their insights and feedback, Betsy Boynton for her contributions to the Crisis Crowdsourcing Framework graphic, and the anonymous reviewers for helping to improve the structure and concepts of the paper. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
Liu et al. (2014) Crisis Crowdsourcing Framework: Designing Strategic Configurations of Crowdsourcing for the Emergency Management Domain. Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) special issue on Crisis Informatics and Collaboration.
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Liu, S.B. Crisis Crowdsourcing Framework: Designing Strategic Configurations of Crowdsourcing for the Emergency Management Domain. Comput Supported Coop Work 23, 389–443 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10606-014-9204-3
- Articulation work
- Conceptual framework
- Crisis informatics
- Crisis mapping
- Digital volunteers
- Emergency management
- Human computation
- Information management
- Social media