Behavioural Insights and (Un)healthy Dietary Choices: a Review of Current Evidence

Abstract

This paper reviews the current evidence about behavioural insights in the field of (un)healthy food choice that can support the development of behavioural public-policy tools. It extends previous work on behaviourally based policies in health and food choice, both academic and professional. The core of the paper is a summary of reviews of behavioural insights-based interventions and the scientific evidence regarding their efficacy in nudging people towards healthier food choices. Overall, we cover 39 systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses published between 2010 and 2017. Additionally, we outline potential drivers and theories that could help to explain the mechanisms behind these interventions. The paper concludes with a discussion of the results and suggestions for policy-makers aiming to make use of behavioural insights in health policy.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

Notes

  1. 1.

    For instance, the current EU FP7 project “Nudge-it” (https://www.nudge-it.eu/) and the Dutch Project “NUDGIS” (https://www.nwo.nl/en/research-and-results/research-projects/i/11/11011.html).

  2. 2.

    Whether this is an opportunity to develop dynamic and field-specific nudge concepts or whether this lack of a general taxonomy is deplorable – and whether such an overarching typology is desirable at all – are debatable. The specific potential and limits of nudges can, however, only be revealed case-specifically; in our view, increasing the level of abstraction might be an interesting academic exercise but is not helpful in the real world.

  3. 3.

    TITLE ((“nudg*” OR “intervention” OR “choice architecture” OR “environment*” OR “label*” OR “information” OR “fact” OR “claim” OR “prim*” OR “prompt” OR “reminder” OR “default” OR “salience” OR “message” OR “plate*” OR “portion*” OR “packag*” OR “container*” OR “place*” OR “incentive” OR “*planning” OR “*commitment*”) AND (“review” OR “meta analysis”)) AND TITLE-ABS-KEY ((“food” OR “diet*” OR “vegetables” OR “fruit” OR “eat*” OR “calori*” OR “meal” OR “menu” OR “energy” OR “nutrition*”) AND (“selection” OR “choice” OR “behaviour” OR “chang*” OR “consum*”)) AND (LIMIT-TO (PUBYEAR, 2010–2017)

  4. 4.

    An unpublished meta-analysis of 277 effect sizes by Cadario and Chandon (2017) finds calorie reductions between − 45 and − 186 kcal. The authors argue that using the “right” nudge for the specific context can boost effects substantially.

  5. 5.

    Food Labelling to Advance Better Education for Life, http://flabel.org/.

  6. 6.

    This label is recently facing criticism in the Netherlands after research showed a lack of understanding among consumers despite the label being implemented for the past 10 years (Consumentenbond 2016).

  7. 7.

    A QALY is defined as one life year in full health, often used to compare cost-effectiveness of different interventions in health economics (for details see Raftery 2014; Sassi 2006).

  8. 8.

    http://www.consort-statement.org/.

  9. 9.

    https://insead.eu.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_1ENmOXnDHtoYnkx.

  10. 10.

    http://www.ucl.ac.uk/human-behaviour-change/about.

References

  1. Aarts, H., & Elliot, A. J. (2012). Goal-directed behavior. New York: Psychology Press.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Afshin, A., Peñalvo, J. L., Del Gobbo, L., Silva, J., Michaelson, M., O'Flaherty, et al. (2017). The prospective impact of food pricing on improving dietary consumption: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One, 12(3), e0172277.

  3. Allan, J. L., Querstret, D., Banas, K., & de Bruin, M. (2017). Environmental interventions for altering eating behaviours of employees in the workplace: A systematic review. Obesity Reviews, 18(2), 214–226.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. An, R. (2013). Effectiveness of subsidies in promoting healthy food purchases and consumption: A review of field experiments. Public Health Nutrition, 16(7), 1215–1228.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Andreyeva, T., Long, M. W., & Brownell, K. D. (2010). The impact of food prices on consumption: A systematic review of research on the price elasticity of demand for food. American Journal of Public Health, 100(2), 216–222.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Anzman-Frasca, S., Mueller, M. P., Sliwa, S., Dolan, P. R., Harelick, L., Roberts, S. B., et al. (2015). Changes in children’s meal orders following healthy menu modifications at a regional US restaurant chain. Obesity, 23(5), 1055–1062.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Appelhans, B. M., French, S. A., Pagoto, S. L., & Sherwood, N. E. (2016). Managing temptation in obesity treatment: A neurobehavioral model of intervention strategies. Appetite, 96, 268–279.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Arno, A., & Thomas, S. (2016). The efficacy of nudge theory strategies in influencing adult dietary behaviour: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health, 16(676).

  9. Au, N., French, S. A., Pagoto, S. L., & Sherwood, N. E. (2013). The cost-effectiveness of shopping to a predetermined grocery list to reduce overweight and obesity. Nutrition & Diabetes, 3(6), e77.

  10. Azman, N., & Sahak, S. Z. (2014). Nutritional label and consumer buying decision: A preliminary review. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 130, 490–498.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Bartlett, S., Klerman, J., Olsho, L., Logan, C., Blocklin, M., Beauregard, M., et al. (2014). Evaluation of the Healthy Incentives Pilot (HIP) final report. United States Department of Agriculture. Available at: https://fns-prod.azureedge.net/sites/default/files/HIP-Final.pdf.

  12. Belot, M., James, J., & Nolen, P. (2016). Incentives and children’s dietary choices: A field experiment in primary schools. Journal of Health Economics, 50, 213–229.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Benartzi, S., Beshears, J., Milkman, K. L., Sunstein, C. R., Thaler, R. H., Shankar, M., et al. (2017). Should governments invest more in nudging? Psychological Science, 28(8), 1041–1055.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Benton, D. (2015). Portion size: What we know and what we need to know. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 55(7), 988–1004.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Berthoud, H.-R. (2012). The neurobiology of food intake in an obesogenic environment. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 71(4), 478–487.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Bischoff, S. C., Boirie, Y., Cederholm, T., Chourdakis, M., Cuerda, C., Delzenne, N. M., et al. (2017). Towards a multidisciplinary approach to understand and manage obesity and related diseases. Clinical Nutrition, 36(4), 917–938.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. BIT. (2015). The Behavioural insights team update report 2013–2015. London: Behavioural Insights Team.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Bleich, S. N., Economis, C. D., Spiker, M. L., Vercammen, K. L., van Epps, E. M., Block, J. P., et al. (2017). A systematic review of calorie labeling and modified calorie labeling interventions: Impact on consumer and restaurant behavior. Obesity, 25(12), 2018–2044.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Blumenthal-Barby, J. S., & Burroughs, H. (2012). Seeking better health care outcomes: The ethics of using the “nudge”. The American Journal of Bioethics, 12(2), 1–10.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Boland, W. A., Connell, P. M., & Vallen, B. (2013). Time of day effects on the regulation of food consumption after activation of health goals. Appetite, 70, 47–52.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Boyland, E. J., & Whalen, R. (2015). Food advertising to children and its effects on diet: Review of recent prevalence and impact data. Pediatric Diabetes, 16(5), 331–337.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Brambila-Macias, J., Shankar, B., Capacci, S., Mazzocchi, M., Perez-Cueto, F. J., Verbeke, W., et al. (2011). Policy interventions to promote healthy eating: A review of what works, what does not, and what is promising. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 32(4), 365–375.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Broers, J. V., De Breucker, C., Van den Broucke, S., & Luminet, O. (2017). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of nudging to increase fruit and vegetable choice. European Journal of Public Health, 27(5), 912–920.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Brunstrom, J. M., & Rogers, P. J. (2009). How many calories are on our plate? Expected fullness, not liking, determines meal-size selection. Obesity, 17(10), 1884–1890 (Silver Spring, MD).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Brunstrom, J. M., Burn, J. F., Sell, N. R., Collingwood, J. M., Rogers, P. J., Wilkinson, L. L., et al. (2012). Episodic memory and appetite regulation in humans. PLoS One, 7(12), e50707.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Bucher, T., Collins, C., Rollo, M. E., McCaffrey, T. A., De Vlieger, N., Van der Bend, D., et al. (2016). Nudging consumers towards healthier choices: A systematic review of positional influences on food choice. British Journal of Nutrition, 115(9), 1–12.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Buckland, N. J., Finlayson, G., & Hetherington, M. M. (2013). Pre-exposure to diet-congruent food reduces energy intake in restrained dieting women. Eating Behaviors, 14(3), 249–254.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Buscher, L. A., Martin, K. A., & Crocker, S. (2001). Point-of-purchase messages framed in terms of cost, convenience, taste, and energy improve healthful snack selection in a college foodservice setting. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 101(8), 909–913.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Cadario, R., & Chandon, P. (2017). Which healthy eating nudges work best? A meta-analysis of behavioral interventions in field experiments. INSEAD Working Paper series 2017/77/MKT. Available at: https://faculty.insead.edu/pierre-chandon/documents/Articles/Cadario%20Chandon%20Meta-Analysis%20Healthy%20Eating%20Nudges%20INSEAD%20WP%202017-77.pdf.

  30. Cameron, J. D., Goldfield, G. S., Finlayson, G., Blundell, J. E., & Doucet, É. (2014). Fasting for 24 hours heightens reward from food and food-related cues. PLoS One, 9(1), 1–8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Campos, S., Doxey, J., & Hammond, D. (2011). Nutrition labels on pre-packaged foods: A systematic review. Public Health Nutrition, 14(8), 1496–1506.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Cantu-Jungles, T. M., McCormack, L. A., Slaven, J. E., Slebodnik, M., & Eicher-Miller, H. A. (2017). A meta-analysis to determine the impact of restaurant menu labeling on calories and nutrients (ordered or consumed) in U.S. adults. Nutrients, 9(10), 20–22.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Capacci, S., Mazzocchi, M., Shankar, B., Macias, J. B., Verbeke, W., Pérez-Cueto, F. J., et al. (2012). Policies to promote healthy eating in Europe: A structured review of policies and their effectiveness. Nutrition Reviews, 70(3), 188–200.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Casazza, K., Fontaine, K. R., Astrup, A., Birch, L. L., Brown, A. W., Brown, B., et al. (2013). Myths, presumptions, and facts about obesity. New England Journal of Medicine, 368(5), 446–454.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Cecchini, M., & Warin, L. (2016). Impact of food labelling systems on food choices and eating behaviours: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized studies. Obesity Reviews, 17(3), 201–210.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Cecchini, M., Sassi, F., Lauer, J. A., Lee, Y. Y., Guajardo-Barron, V., & Chisholm, D. (2010). Tackling of unhealthy diets, physical inactivity, and obesity: Health effects and cost-effectiveness. The Lancet, 376(9754), 1775–1784.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Cha, E. S., Kim, K. H., Lerner, H. M., Dawkins, C. R., Bello, M. K., Umpierrez, G., et al. (2014). Health literacy, self-efficacy, food label use, and diet in young adults. American Journal of Health Behavior, 38(3), 331–339.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Chandon, P., & Wansink, B. (2007). Is obesity caused by calorie underestimation? A psychophysical model of meal size estimation. Journal of Marketing Research, 44(1), 84–99.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Cheung, T. T. L., Kroesea, F. M., Fennis, B. M., & De Ridder, D. T. D. (2017). The Hunger Games: Using hunger to promote healthy choices in self-control conflicts. Appetite, 116, 401–409.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Coelho, J. S., Polivy, J., Herman, C. P., & Pliner, P. (2009). Wake up and smell the cookies. Effects of olfactory food-cue exposure in restrained and unrestrained eaters. Appetite, 52(2), 517–520.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Cohen, G. I., Fernandez Lynch, H., & Robertson, C. T. (Eds.). (2016). Nudging health: Health law and behavioural economics. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Consumentenbond. (2016). Resultaten Panelonderzoek Het Vinkje. Available at: https://www.consumentenbond.nl/binaries/content/assets/cbhippowebsite/actie-voeren/vinkjes/opmaak_resultaten_onderzoek_het_vinkje-v4b.pdf.

  43. Crolic, C., & Janiszewski, C. (2016). Hedonic escalation: When food just tastes better and better. Journal of Consumer Research, 43(3), 388–406.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Crum, A. J., Corbin, W. R., Brownell, K. D., & Salovey, P. (2011). Mind over milkshakes: Mindsets, not just nutrients, determine Ghrelin response. Health Psychology, 30(4), 424–429.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Cruwys, T., Bevelander, K. E., & Hermans, R. C. J. (2015). Social modeling of eating: A review of when and why social influence affects food intake and choice. Appetite, 86, 3–18.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. de Linde, L. M., Stanley, T. D., & Doucouliagos, H. (2013). Does the UK minimum wage reduce employment? A meta-regression analysis. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 52(3), 499–520.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. de Wijk, R. A., Maaskant, A. J., Polet, I. A., Holthuysen, N. T. E., van Kleef, E., & Vingerhoeds, M. H. (2016). An in-store experiment on the effect of accessibility on sales of wholegrain and white bread in supermarkets. PLoS One, 11(3), e0151915.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Deb, P., & Vargas, C. (2016). Who benefits from calorie labeling? An analysis of its effects on body mass. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper Series, No. 21992.

  49. Deliens, T., Van Crombruggen, R., Verbruggen, S., de Bourdeaudhuij, I., Deforche, B., & Clarys, P. (2016). Dietary interventions among university students: A systematic review. Appetite, 105, 14–26.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Dickson-Spillmann, M., & Siegrist, M. (2011). Consumers’ knowledge of healthy diets and its correlation with dietary behaviour. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 24(1), 54–60.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Döring, T., & Wansink, B. (2017). The waiter’s weight: Does a server’s BMI relate to how much food diners order? Environment and Behavior, 49(2), 192–214.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Doucouliagos, H., & Stanley, T. D. (2009). Publication selection bias in minimum-wage research? A meta-regression analysis. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 47(2), 406–428.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Doyen, S., Klein, O., Pichon, C.-L., & Cleeremans, A. (2012). Behavioral priming: It’s all in the mind, but whose mind? PLoS One, 7, e29081.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Ducrot, P., Julia, C., Méjean, C., Kesse-Guyot, E., Touvier, M., Fezeu, L. K., et al. (2016). Impact of different front-of-pack nutrition labels on consumer purchasing intentions: A randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 50(5), 627–636.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Enax, L., Hu, Y., Trautner, P., & Weber, B. (2015). Nutrition labels influence value computation of food products in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Obesity, 23(4), 786–792.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. English, L., Lasschuijt, M., & Keller, K. L. (2015). Mechanisms of the portion size effect. What is known and where do we go from here? Appetite, 88, 39–49.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Escaron, A. L., Meinen, A. M., Nitzke, S. A., & Martinez-Donate, A. P. (2013). Supermarket and grocery store-based interventions to promote healthful food choices and eating practices: A systematic review. Preventing Chronic Disease, 10(4), E50.

    Google Scholar 

  58. European Commission. (2014). Food information to consumers – Legislation. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/labelling_nutrition/labelling_legislation_en.

  59. Eyles, H., Mhurchu, C. N., Nghiem, N., & Blakely, T. (2012). Food pricing strategies, population diets, and non-communicable disease: A systematic review of simulation studies. PLoS Medicine, 9(12), e1001353.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Fay, S. H., Ferriday, D., Hinton, E. C., Shakeshaft, N. G., Rogers, P. J., & Brunstrom, J. M. (2011). What determines real-world meal size? Evidence for pre-meal planning. Appetite, 56(2), 284–289.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Fernandes, A. C., Oliveira, R. C., Proença, R. P., Curioni, C. C., Rodrigues, V. M., & Fiates, G. M. (2016). Influence of menu labeling on food choices in real-life settings: A systematic review. Nutrition Reviews, 74(8), 534–548.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Forde, C. G., Almiron-Roig, E., & Brunstrom, J. M. (2015). Expected satiety: Application to weight management and understanding energy selection in humans. Current Obesity Reports, 4(1), 131–140.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Förster, J., Liberman, N., & Friedman, R. S. (2007). Seven principles of goal activation: A systematic approach to distinguishing goal priming from priming of non-goal constructs. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 11(3), 211–233.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Forwood, S. E., Ahern, A. L., Hollands, G. J., Ng, Y. L., & Marteau, T. M. (2015). Priming healthy eating: You can’t prime all the people all of the time. Appetite, 89, 93–102.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. French, S. A., Mitchell, N. R., Wolfson, J., Harnack, L. J., Jeffery, R. W., Gerlach, A. F., et al. (2014). Portion size effects on weight gain in a free living setting. Obesity, 22(6), 1400–1405.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Gaillet, M., Sulmont-Rossé, C., Issanchou, S., Chabanet, C., & Chambaron, S. (2013). Priming effects of an olfactory food cue on subsequent food-related behaviour. Food Quality and Preference, 30(2), 274–281.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Gelman, A. (2017). The failure of null hypothesis significance testing when studying incremental changes, and what to do about it. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 44(1), 16–23.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Gelman, A., & Geurts, H. M. (2017). The statistical crisis in science: How is it relevant to clinical neuropsychology? The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 31(6–7), 1000–1014.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Goldstone, A. P., Prechtl de Hernandez, C. G., Beaver, J. D., Muhammed, K., Croese, C., Bell, G., et al. (2009). Fasting biases brain reward systems towards high-calorie foods. European Journal of Neuroscience, 30(8), 1625–1635.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Golsteyn, B. H. H., Grönqvist, H., & Lindahl, L. (2014). Adolescent time preferences predict lifetime outcomes. Economic Journal, 124(580), 739–761.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Grabenhorst, F., Schulte, F. P., Maderwald, S., & Brand, M. (2013). Food labels promote healthy choices by a decision bias in the amygdala. NeuroImage, 74, 152–163.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Grech, A., & Allman-Farinelli, M. (2015). A systematic literature review of nutrition interventions in vending machines that encourage consumers to make healthier choices. Obesity Reviews, 16(12), 1030–1041.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. GreeNudge. (2017). From knowledge to action. The behavioral insights of food choices: Influencing consumers to make healthier decisions. Available at: http://greenudge.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/GreeNudge-From-Knowledge-to-Action-report-2017.pdf.

  74. Grunert, K. G., & Wills, J. M. (2007). A review of European research on consumer response to nutrition information on food labels. Journal of Public Health, 15(5), 385–399.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Grunert, K. G., Fernández-Celemín, L., Wills, J. M., Storcksdieck Genannt Bonsmann, S., & Nureeva, L. (2010). Use and understanding of nutrition information on food labels in six European countries. Journal of Public Health, 18(3), 261–277.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Guthrie, J., Mancino, L., & Lin, C. J. (2015). Nudging consumers toward better food choices: Policy approaches to changing food consumption behaviors. Psychology and Marketing, 32(5), 501–511.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Hall, K. D., Sacks, G., Chandramohan, D., Chow, C. C., Wang, Y. C., Gortmaker, S. L., et al. (2011). Quantification of the effect of energy imbalance on bodyweight. The Lancet, 378(9793), 826–837.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Halpern, D. (2015). Inside the nudge unit: How small changes can make a big difference. London: WH Allen.

    Google Scholar 

  79. Hanks, A. S., Just, D. R., & Wansink, B. (2013). Preordering school lunch encourages better food choices by children. JAMA Pediatrics, 167(7), 673–674.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  80. Hansen, P. G., Skov, L. R., Jespersen, A. M., Skov, K. L., & Schmidt, K. (2016). Apples versus brownies: A field experiment in rearranging conference snacking buffets to reduce short-term energy intake. Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 19(1), 122–130.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  81. Hare, T. A., Malmaud, J., & Rangel, A. (2011). Focusing attention on the health aspects of foods changes value signals in vmPFC and improves dietary choice. Journal of Neuroscience, 31(30), 11077–11087.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  82. Hawkes, C., Smith, T. G., Jewell, J., Wardle, J., Hammond, R. A., Friel, S., et al. (2015). Smart food policies for obesity prevention. The Lancet, 385(9985), 2410–2421.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  83. Hawley, K. L., Roberto, C. A., Bragg, M. A., Liu, P. J., Schwartz, M. B., & Brownell, K. D. (2013). The science on front-of-package food labels. Public Health Nutrition, 16(3), 430–439.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  84. Hendren, S., & Logomarsino, J. (2017). Impact of worksite cafeteria interventions on fruit and vegetable consumption in adults: A systematic review. International Journal of Workplace Health Management, 10(2), 134–152.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  85. Herman, C. P. (2015). The social facilitation of eating: A review. Appetite, 86, 61–73.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  86. Herman, C. P., & Polivy, J. (2005). Normative influences on food intake. Physiology and Behavior, 86(5), 762–772.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  87. Herman, C. P., Polivy, J., Pliner, P., & Vartanian, L. R. (2015). Mechanisms underlying the portion-size effect. Physiology and Behavior, 144, 129–136.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  88. Herman, C. P., Polivy, J., Vartanian, L. R., & Pliner, P. (2016). Are large portions responsible for the obesity epidemic? Physiology and Behavior, 156, 177–181.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  89. Hersey, J. C., Wohlgenant, K. C., Arsenault, J. E., Kosa, K. M., & Muth, M. K. (2013). Effects of front-of-package and shelf nutrition labeling systems on consumers. Nutrition Reviews, 71(1), 1–14.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  90. Higgs, S. (2015). Social norms and their influence on eating behaviours. Appetite, 86, 38–44.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  91. Higgs, S. (2016). Cognitive processing of food rewards. Appetite, 104, 10–17.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  92. Hill, J. O., & Peter, J. C. (1998). Environmental contributions to the obesity epidemic. Science, 280(5368), 1371–1374.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  93. Hillier-Brown, F. C., Summerbell, C. D., Moore, H. J., Routen, A., Lake, A. A., Adams, J., et al. (2017). The impact of interventions to promote healthier ready-to-eat meals (to eat in, to take away or to be delivered) sold by specific food outlets open to the general public: A systematic review. Obesity Reviews, 18, 227–246.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  94. Hoefkens, C., Verbeke, W., & Van Camp, J. (2011). European consumers’ perceived importance of qualifying and disqualifying nutrients in food choices. Food Quality and Preference, 22(6), 550–558.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. Hofmann, W., Friese, M., & Wiers, R. W. (2008). Impulsive versus reflective influences on health behavior: A theoretical framework and empirical review. Health Psychology Review, 2(2), 111–137.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  96. Holden, S. S., Zlatevska, N., & Dubelaar, C. (2016). Whether smaller plates reduce consumption depends on who’s serving and who’s looking: A meta-analysis. Journal of the Association for Consumer Research, 1(1), 134–146.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  97. Hollands, G. J., & Marteau, T. M. (2016). Pairing images of unhealthy and healthy foods with images of negative and positive health consequences: Impact on attitudes and food choice. Health Psychology, 35, 847–851.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  98. Hollands, G. J., Prestwich, A., & Marteau, T. M. (2011). Using aversive images to enhance healthy food choices and implicit attitudes: An experimental test of evaluative conditioning. Health Psychology, 30(2), 195–203.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  99. Hollands, G. J., Shemilt, I., Marteau, T. M., Jebb, S. A., Kelly, M. P., Nakamura, R., et al. (2013). Altering micro-environments to change population health behaviour: Towards an evidence base for choice architecture interventions. BMC Public Health, 13(1), 1218.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  100. Hollands, G. J., Shemilt, I., Marteau, T. M., Jebb, S. A., Lewis, H. B., Wie, Y., et al. (2015). Portion, package or tableware size for changing selection and consumption of food, alcohol and tobacco. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2017(3), 2015–2018.

    Google Scholar 

  101. Hollands, G. J., Bignardi, G., Johnston, M., Kelly, M., Ogilvie, D. B., Petticrew, M., et al. (2017). The TIPPME intervention typology for changing environments to change behaviour. Nature Human Behaviour, 1(July), 1–9.

    Google Scholar 

  102. Ioannidis, J. P. A. (2005). Why most published research findings are false. PLoS Medicine, 2(8), 0696–0701.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  103. Jeffery, R. W., Wing, R. R., Thorson, C., & Burton, L. R. (1998). Use of personal trainers and financial incentives to increase exercise in a behavioral weight-loss program. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(5), 777–783.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  104. Johnson, E. J., & Goldstein, D. (2003). Do defaults save lives? Science, 302(5649), 1338–1339.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  105. Johnson, E. J., Shu, S. B., Benedict, G. C., Dellaert, B. G. C., Fox, C., Goldstein, D. G., & Weber, E. U. (2012). Beyond nudges: Tools of a choice architecture. Marketing Letters, 23(2), 487–504.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  106. Julia, C., & Hercberg, S. (2017). Nutri-Score: Evidence of the effectiveness of the French front-of-pack nutrition label. Ernährungs Umschau, 64(12), 181–187.

    Google Scholar 

  107. Julia, C., Ducrot, P., Péneau, S., Deschamps, V., Méjean, C., Fézeu, L., … Kesse-Guyot, E. (2015). Discriminating nutritional quality of foods using the 5-color nutrition label in the French food market: Consistency with nutritional recommendations. Nutrition Journal, 14, 1–12.

  108. Julia, C., Blanchet, O., Méjean, C., Péneau, S., Ducrot, P., Allès, B., et al. (2016). Impact of the front-of-pack 5-colour nutrition label (5-CNL) on the nutritional quality of purchases: An experimental study. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 13(101), 1–9.

  109. Junghans, A. F., Cheung, T. T. L., & De Ridder, D. T. D. (2015). Under consumers’ scrutiny: An investigation into consumers’ attitudes and concerns about nudging in the realm of health behavior. BMC Public Health, 15(1), 1–13.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  110. Just, D. R., & Payne, C. R. (2009). Obesity: Can behavioral economics help? Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 38(Suppl 1), S47–S55.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  111. Just, D. R., & Price, J. (2013). Using incentives to encourage healthy eating in children. Journal of Human Resources, 48, 855–872.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  112. Just, D. R., & Wansink, B. (2014). One man's tall is another man's small: How the framing of portion size influences food choice. Health Economics, 23(7), 776–791.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  113. Just, D. R., Wansink, B., Mancino, L., & Guthrie, J. (2008). Behavioral economic concepts to encourage healthy eating in school cafeterias. Economic Research Report, 68, iii–i21.

    Google Scholar 

  114. Kahneman, D. (2003). Maps of bounded rationality: Psychology for behavioral economics. The American Economic Review, 93(5), 1449–1475.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  115. Kahneman, D. (2013). Thinking, fast and slow. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

    Google Scholar 

  116. Kahneman, D., Knetsch, J. L., & Thaler, R. H. (1991). Anomalies: The endowment effect, loss aversion, and status quo bias. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 5(1), 193–206.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  117. Kahn-Marshall, J. L., & Gallant, M. P. (2012). Making healthy behaviors the easy choice for employees: A review of the literature on environmental and policy changes in worksite health promotion. Health Education & Behavior, 39(6), 752–776.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  118. Kaur, A., Scarborough, P., & Rayner, M. (2017). A systematic review, and meta-analyses, of the impact of health-related claims on dietary choices. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 14(1), 93.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  119. Kiszko, K. M., Martinez, O. D., Abrams, C., & Elbel, B. (2014). The influence of calorie labeling on food orders and consumption: A review of the literature. Journal of Community Health, 39(6), 1248–1269.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  120. Krider, R. E., Raghubir, P., & Krishna, A. (2001). Pizzas: π or square? Psychophysical biases in area comparisons. Marketing Science, 20(4), 405–425.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  121. Kunkel, D. L., Castonguay, J. S., & Filer, C. R. (2015). Evaluating industry self-regulation of food marketing to children. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 49(2), 181–187.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  122. Laber, E. B., & Shedden, K. (2017). Statistical significance and the dichotomization of evidence: The relevance of the ASA statement on statistical significance and p-values for statisticians. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 112(519), 902–904.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  123. Laibson, D. (1997). Golden eggs and hyperbolic discounting. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 112(2), 443–477.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  124. Leng, G., Adan, R. A. H., Belot, M., Brunstrom, J. M., de Graaf, K., Dickson, S. L., et al. (2016). The determinants of food choice. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 76(3), 316–327.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  125. Levy, D. E., Riis, J., Sonnenberg, L. M., Barraclough, S. J., & Thorndike, A. N. (2012). Food choices of minority and low-income employees: A cafeteria intervention. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 43(3), 240–248.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  126. Libotte, E., Siegrist, M., & Bucher, T. (2014). The influence of plate size on meal composition. Literature review and experiment. Appetite, 82, 91–96.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  127. List, J. A., & Samek, A. S. (2015). The behavioralist as nutritionist: Leveraging behavioral economics to improve child food choice and consumption. Journal of Health Economics, 39, 135–146.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  128. Littlewood, J. A., Sousa Lourenço, J., Iversen, C. L., & Hansen, G. L. (2016). Menu labelling is effective in reducing energy ordered and consumed: A systematic review and meta-analysis of recent studies. Public Health Nutrition, 19(12), 1–16.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  129. Loewenstein, G. (1996). Out of control: Visceral influences on behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 65(3), 272–292.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  130. Loewenstein, G., Brennan, T., & Volpp, K. G. (2007). Asymmetric paternalism to improve health behaviors. JAMA, 298(20), 2415–2417.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  131. Loewenstein, G., Asch, D. A., Friedman, J. Y., Melichar, L. A., & Volpp, K. G. (2012). Can behavioural economics make us healthier? BMJ, 344(May), e3482.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  132. Loewenstein, G., Price, J., & Volpp, K. (2016). Habit formation in children: Evidence from incentives for healthy eating. Journal of Health Economics, 45, 47–54.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  133. Long, M. W., Tobias, D. K., Cradock, A. L., Batchelder, H., & Gortmaker, S. L. (2015). Systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of restaurant menu calorie labeling. American Journal of Public Health, 105(5), e11–e24.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  134. Lucan, S. C., & DiNicolantonio, J. J. (2015). How calorie-focused thinking about obesity and related diseases may mislead and harm public health. An alternative. Public Health Nutrition, 18(4), 571–581.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  135. Lusk, J. L. (2014). Are you smart enough to know what to eat? A critique of behavioural economics as justification for regulation. European Review of Agricultural Economics, 41(3), 355–373.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  136. Lusk, J. L., & Ellison, B. (2013). Who is to blame for the rise in obesity? Appetite, 68, 14–20.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  137. Ly, K., Zhao, M., & Soman, D. (2013). A practitioner’s guide to nudging. Rothman School of Management Working Paper no. 2609347.

  138. Lycett, K., Miller, A., Knox, A., Dunn, S., Kerr, J. A., Sung, V., & Wake, M. (2017). “Nudge” interventions for improving children’s dietary behaviors in the home: A systematic review. Obesity Medicine, 7, 21–33.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  139. Maniadakis, N., Kapaki, V., Damianidi, L., & Kourlaba, G. (2013). A systematic review of the effectiveness of taxes on nonalcoholic beverages and high-in-fat foods as a means to prevent obesity trends. ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research, 5(1), 519–543.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  140. Mantzari, E., Vogt, F., Shemilt, I., Wie, Y., Higgins, J. P., & Marteau, T. M. (2015). Personal financial incentives for changing habitual health-related behaviors: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Preventive Medicine, 75, 75–85.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  141. Marchiori, D. R., Papies, E. K., & Klein, O. (2014). The portion size effect on food intake: An anchoring and adjustment process? Appetite, 81, 108–115.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  142. Marchiori, D. R., Adriaanse, M. A., & De Ridder, D. T. D. (2017). Unresolved questions in nudging research: Putting the psychology back in nudging. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 11(1), 1–13.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  143. McClelland, J., Dalton, B., Kekic, M., Bartholdy, S., Campbell, I. C., & Schmidt, U. (2016). A systematic review of temporal discounting in eating disorders and obesity: Behavioural and neuroimaging findings. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 71, 506–528.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  144. McCluskey, J. J., Mittelhammer, R. C., & Asiseh, F. (2012). From default to choice: Adding healthy options to kids’ menus. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 94(2), 338–343.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  145. McGill, R., Anwar, E., Orton, L., Bromley, H., Lloyd-Williams, F., O’Flaherty, M., et al. (2015). Are interventions to promote healthy eating equally effective for all? Systematic review of socioeconomic inequalities in impact. BMC Public Health, 15(1), 457.

  146. McShane, B. B., & Gal, D. (2017). Rejoinder: Statistical significance and the dichotomization of evidence. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 112(519), 885–895.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  147. Miake-Lye, I. M., Hempel, S., Shanman, R., & Shekelle, P. G. (2016). What is an evidence map? A systematic review of published evidence maps and their definitions, methods, and products. Systematic Reviews, 5(1), 28.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  148. Michie, S., Richardson, M., Johnston, M., Abraham, C., Francis, J., Hardeman, W., et al. (2013). The behavior change technique taxonomy (v1) of 93 hierarchically clustered techniques: Building an international consensus for the reporting of behavior change interventions. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 46(1), 81–95.

  149. Miller, L. M. S., & Cassady, D. L. (2015). The effects of nutrition knowledge on food label use: A review of the literature. Appetite, 92, 207–216.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  150. Minas, R. K., Poor, M., Dennis, A. R., & Bartelt, V. L. (2016). A prime a day keeps calories away: The effects of supraliminal priming on food consumption and the moderating role of gender and eating restraint. Appetite, 105, 494–499.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  151. Mishra, A., Mishra, H., & Masters, T. M. (2012). The influence of bite size on quantity of food consumed: A field study. Journal of Consumer Research, 38(5), 791–795.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  152. Mitchell, M. S., Goodman, J. M., Alter, D. A., John, L. K., Oh, P. I., Pakosh, M. T., et al. (2013). Financial incentives for exercise adherence in adults: Systematic review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 45(5), 658–667.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  153. Mullainathan, S., & Shafir, E. (2013). Scarcity: Why having too little means so much. London: Penguin.

    Google Scholar 

  154. Muller, L., & Prevost, M. (2016). What cognitive sciences have to say about the impacts of nutritional labelling formats. Journal of Economic Psychology, 55, 17–29.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  155. Muller, L., Lacroix, A., Lusk, J. L., & Ruffieux, B. (2017). Distributional impacts of fat taxes and thin subsidies. Economic Journal, 127(604), 2066–2092.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  156. Münscher, R., Vetter, M., & Scheuerle, T. (2015). A review and taxonomy of choice architecture techniques. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 29(5), 511–524.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  157. NCD Risk Factor Collaboration. (2017). Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: A pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128.9 million children, adolescents, and adults. The Lancet, 6736(17), 1–16.

    Google Scholar 

  158. Nikolaou, C. K., Hankey, C. R., & Lean, M. E. J. (2015). Calorie-labelling: Does it impact on calorie purchase in catering outlets and the views of young adults? International Journal of Obesity, 39(3), 542–545.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  159. Nørnberg, T. R., Houlby, L., Skov, L. R., & Peréz-Cueto, F. J. (2016). Choice architecture interventions for increased vegetable intake and behaviour change in a school setting: A systematic review. Perspectives in Public Health, 136(3), 1–11.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  160. OECD. (2017). Use of behavioural insights in consumer policy. OECD Science, Technology and Industry Policy Papers, no. 36. Paris: Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development.

  161. Osei-Assibey, G., Smita, D., Macdiarmid, J., Semple, S., Reilly, J. J., Ellaway, A., et al. (2012). The influence of the food environment on overweight and obesity in young children: A systematic review. BMJ Open, 2, e001538.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  162. Papies, E. K. (2016a). Goal priming as a situated intervention tool. Current Opinion in Psychology, 12, 12–16.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  163. Papies, E. K. (2016b). Health goal priming as a situated intervention tool: How to benefit from nonconscious motivational routes to health behaviour. Health Psychology Review, 10(4), 408–424.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  164. Papies, E. K., & Veling, H. (2013). Healthy dining: Subtle diet reminders at the point of purchase increase low-calorie food choices among both chronic and current dieters. Appetite, 61, 1–7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  165. Payne, C. R., Niculescu, M., Just, D. A., & Kelly, M. P. (2015). Shopper marketing nutrition interventions: Social norms on grocery carts increase produce spending without increasing shopper budgets. Preventive Medicine Reports, 2, 287–291.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  166. Perry, C., Chhatralia, K., Damesick, D., Hobden, S., & Volpe, L. (2015). Behavioural insights in health care: Nudging to reduce inefficiency and waste. London: The Health Foundation.

    Google Scholar 

  167. Peters, J., Beck, J., Lande, J., Pan, Z., Cardel, M., Ayoob, K., et al. (2016). Using healthy defaults in Walt Disney World restaurants to improve nutritional choices. Journal of the Association for Consumer Research, 1(1), 92–103.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  168. Pliner, P. (1982). The effects of mere exposure on liking for edible substances. Appetite, 3(3), 283–290.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  169. Pliner, P., & Mann, N. (2004). Influence of social norms and palatability on amount consumed and food choice. Appetite, 42(2), 227–237.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  170. Powell, L. M., & Chaloupka, F. J. (2009). Food prices and obesity: Evidence and policy implications for taxes and subsidies. Milbank Quarterly, 87(1), 229–257.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  171. Powell, L. M., Chriqui, J. F., Khan, T., Wada, R., & Chaloupka, F. J. (2013). Assessing the potential effectiveness of food and beverage taxes and subsidies for improving public health: A systematic review of prices, demand and body weight outcomes. Obesity Reviews, 14(2), 110–128.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  172. Prevost, M., Hot, P., Muller, L., Ruffieux, B., Cousin, E., Pichat, C., et al. (2017). Neural correlates of the healthiness evaluation processes of food labels. Nutritional Neuroscience, 11, 1–11.

    Google Scholar 

  173. Purnell, J. Q., Gernes, R., Stein, R., Sherraden, M. S., & Knoblock-Hahn, A. (2014). A systematic review of financial incentives for dietary behavior change. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 114(7), 1023–1035.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  174. Raftery, J. P. (2014). NICE’s cost-effectiveness range: Should it be lowered? PharmacoEconomics, 32(7), 613–615.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  175. Reimann, M., Bechara, A., & MacInnis, D. (2015). Leveraging the Happy Meal effect: Substituting food with modest nonfood incentives decreases portion size choice. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 21(3), 276–286.

    Google Scholar 

  176. Reisch, L. A., & Sunstein, C. R. (2016). Do Europeans like nudges? Judgment and Decision making, 11(4), 310–325.

    Google Scholar 

  177. Reisch, L. A., & Thøgersen, J. B. (Eds.). (2015). Handbook of research on sustainable consumption. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

    Google Scholar 

  178. Reisch, L. A., Sunstein, C. R., & Gwozdz, W. (2017). Beyond carrots and sticks: Europeans support health nudges. Viewpoint article. Food Policy, 69, 1–10.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  179. Restrepo, B. (2017). Calorie labeling in chain restaurants and body weight: Evidence from New York. Health Economics, 26, 1191–1209.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  180. Richards, M. R., & Sindelar, J. L. (2013). Rewarding healthy food choices in SNAP: Behavioral economic applications. Milbank Quarterly, 91(2), 395–412.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  181. Roberto, C. A. (2015). Public health policies to encourage healthy eating habits: Recent perspectives. Journal of Healthcare Leadership, 2015(7), 81–90.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  182. Robinson, T. N., & Matheson, D. M. (2015). Environmental strategies for portion control in children. Appetite, 88, 33–38.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  183. Robinson, E., Thomas, J., Aveyard, P., & Higgs, S. (2014a). What everyone else is eating: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of informational eating norms on eating behavior. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 114(3), 414–429.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  184. Robinson, E., Nolan, S., Tudur-Smith, C., Boyland, E. J., Harrold, J. A., Hardman, C. A., et al. (2014b). Will smaller plates lead to smaller waists? A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect that experimental manipulation of dishware size has on energy consumption. Obesity Reviews, 15(10), 812–821.

  185. Robinson, E., Nolan, S., Tudur-Smith, C., Boyland, E. J., Harrold, J. A., Hardman, C. A., et al. (2014c). Prompting healthier eating: Testing the use of health and social norm-based messages. Health Psychology, 33(9), 1057–1064.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  186. Rock, C. L., Flatt, S. W., Sherwood, N. E., Karanja, N., Pakiz, B., & Thomson, C. A. (2010). Effect of a free prepared meal and incentivized weight loss program on weight loss and weight loss maintenance in obese and overweight women. JAMA, 304(16), 1803.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  187. Rogers, P. J. (2017). Food and drug addictions: Similarities and differences. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 153, 182–190.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  188. Rolls, B. J., Roe, L. S., Halverson, K. H., & Meengs, J. S. (2007). Using a smaller plate did not reduce energy intake at meals. Appetite, 49(3), 652–660.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  189. Romero, M., & Biswas, D. (2016). Healthy-left, unhealthy-right: Can displaying healthy items to the left (versus right) of unhealthy items nudge healthier choices? Journal of Consumer Research, 43(1), 103–112.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  190. Ronit, K., & Jensen, J. D. (2014). Obesity and industry self-regulation of food and beverage marketing: A literature review. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 68(7), 753–759.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  191. Roy, R., Kelly, B., Rangan, A., & Allman-Farinelli, M. (2015). Food environment interventions to improve the dietary behavior of young adults in tertiary education settings: A systematic literature review. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 115(10), 1647–1681.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  192. Sacco, J., Lillico, H. G., Chen, E., & Hobin, E. (2017). The influence of menu labelling on food choices among children and adolescents: A systematic review of the literature. Perspectives in Public Health, 137(3), 173–181.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  193. Salmon, S. J., Fennis, B. M., de Ridder, D. T., Adriaanse, M. A., & de Vet, E. (2014). Health on impulse: When low self-control promotes healthy food choices. Health Psychology, 33, 103–109.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  194. Sassi, F. (2006). Calculating QALYs, comparing QALY and DALY calculations. Health Policy and Planning, 21(5), 402–408.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  195. Scheibehenne, B., Todd, P. M., & Wansink, B. (2010). Dining in the dark: The importance of visual cues for food consumption and satiety. Appetite, 55(3), 710–713.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  196. Schmitt, J. (2013). Why does the minimum wage have no discernible effect on employment? Washington: Center for Economic and Policy Research.

    Google Scholar 

  197. Schwartz, M. B., Just, D. R., Chriqui, J. F., & Ammerman, A. S. (2017). Appetite self-regulation: Environmental and policy influences on eating behaviors. Obesity, 25, S26–S38.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  198. Seenivasan, S., & Thomas, D. (2016). Negative consequences of nutrition information disclosure on consumption behavior in quick-casual restaurants. Journal of Economic Psychology, 55, 51–60.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  199. Shafir, E. (2013). The behavioral foundations of public policy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  200. Shah, M., Schroeder, R., Winn, W., & Adams-Huet, B. (2011). A pilot study to investigate the effect of plate size on meal energy intake in normal weight and overweight/obese women. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 24(6), 612–615.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  201. Shariff, A. F., Willard, A. K., Andersen, T., & Norenzayan, A. (2016). Religious priming: A meta-analysis with a focus on prosociality. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 20(1), 27–48.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  202. Shemilt, I., Hendry, V., & Marteau, T. M. (2017). What do we know about the effects of exposure to “low alcohol” and equivalent product labelling on the amounts of alcohol, food and tobacco people select and consume? A systematic review. BMC Public Health, 17(1), 29.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  203. Simmons, J. P., Nelson, L. D., & Simonsohn, U. (2011). False-positive psychology. Psychological Science, 22(11), 1359–1366.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  204. Sinclair, S. E., Cooper, M., & Mansfield, E. D. (2014). The influence of menu labeling on calories selected or consumed: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 114(9), 1375–1388.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  205. Skov, L. R., Sousa Lourenço, J., Hansen, G. L., Mikkelsen, B. E., & Schofield, C. (2013). Choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service settings: A systematic review. Obesity Reviews, 14(3), 187–196.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  206. Sousa Lourenço, J., Ciriolo, E., Rafael Almeida, S., & Troussard, X. (2016). Behavioural insights applied to policy. European Report 2016. Available at: http://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/bitstream/JRC100146/kjna27726enn_new.pdf.

  207. Spronk, I., Kullen, C., Burdon, C., & O'Connor, H. (2014). Relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake. British Journal of Nutrition, 111(10), 1713–1726.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  208. Steenhuis, I., & Poelman, M. (2017). Portion size: Latest developments and interventions. Current Obesity Reports, 6(1), 10–17.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  209. Storcksdieck Genannt Bonsmann, S., & Wills, J. M. (2012). Nutrition labeling to prevent obesity: Reviewing the evidence from Europe. Current Obesity Reports, 1(3), 134–140.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  210. Story, M., Kaphingst, K. M., Robinson-O'Brien, R., & Glanz, K. (2008). Creating healthy food and eating environments: Policy and environmental approaches. Annual Review of Public Health, 29(1), 253–272.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  211. Sunstein, C. R. (2013). Simpler: The future of government. New York: Simon & Schuster.

    Google Scholar 

  212. Sunstein, C. R. (2014). Nudging: A very short guide. Journal of Consumer Policy, 37(4), 583–588.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  213. Sunstein, C. R. (2018). Misconceptions about nudges. Journal of Behavioral Economics for Policy, 2(1), 61–67.

    Google Scholar 

  214. Sunstein, C. R., & Reisch, L. A. (2013). Green by default. Kyklos, 66(3), 398–402.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  215. Sunstein, C. R., & Thaler, R. H. (2003). Libertarian paternalism is not an oxymoron. The University of Chicago Law Review, 70(4), 1159–1202.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  216. Sunstein, C. R., Reisch, L. A., & Rauber, J. (2017). A worldwide consensus on nudging? Not quite, but almost. Regulation & Governance. https://doi.org/10.1111/rego.12161.

  217. Swartz, J. J., Braxton, D., & Viera, A. J. (2011). Calorie menu labeling on quick-service restaurant menus: An updated systematic review of the literature. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 8(1), 135.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  218. Swinburn, B. A., Sacks, G., Hall, K. D., McPherson, K., Finegood, D. T., Moodie, M. L., et al. (2011). The global obesity pandemic: Shaped by global drivers and local environments. The Lancet, 378(9793), 804–814.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  219. Symmank, C., Mai, R., Hoffmann, S., Stok, F. M., Renner, B., Lien, N., et al. (2017). Predictors of food decision making: A systematic interdisciplinary mapping (SIM) review. Appetite, 110, 25–35.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  220. Szaszi, B., Aczel, B., Pálinkás, A., Szollosi, A., & Palfi, B. (2018). A systematic scoping review of the choice architecture movement: Toward understanding when and why nudges work. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 31(3), 355–366.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  221. Tal, A., & Wansink, B. (2013). Fattening fasting: Hungry grocery shoppers buy more calories, not more food. JAMA Internal Medicine, 173(12), 1146–1148.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  222. Taubes, G. (2013). The science of obesity: What do we really know about what makes us fat? BMJ, 346, f1050–f1050.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  223. Thaler, R. H. (2015). Misbehaving: The making of behavioral economics. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.

    Google Scholar 

  224. Thaler, R. H., & Benartzi, S. (2004). Save more tomorrow™: Using behavioral economics to increase employee saving. Journal of Political Economy, 112(S1), 164–187.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  225. Thaler, R. H., & Sunstein, C. R. (2008). Nudge: Improving decisions about health, wealth, and happiness. New York: Penguin.

    Google Scholar 

  226. Thorndike, A. N., Sonnenberg, L., Riis, J., Barraclough, S., & Levy, D. E. (2012). A 2-phase labeling and choice architecture intervention to improve healthy food and beverage choices. American Journal of Public Health, 102(3), 527–533.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  227. Tsai, S. A., Lv, N., Xiao, L., & Ma, J. (2015). Gender differences in weight-related attitudes and behaviors among overweight and obese adults in the United States. American Journal of Men’s Health, 10(5), 389–398.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  228. Ueland, Ø., Cardello, A. V., Merrill, E. P., & Lesher, L. L. (2009). Effect of portion size information on food intake. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 109(1), 124–127.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  229. van Epps, E. M., Roberto, C., Park, S., Economos, C. D., & Bleich, S. N. (2016). Restaurant menu labeling policy: Review of evidence and controversies. Current Obesity Reports, 5, 72–80.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  230. Van Herpen, E., & van Trijp, H. C. M. (2011). Front-of-pack nutrition labels: Their effect on attention and choices when consumers have varying goals and time constraints. Appetite, 57(1), 148–160.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  231. Van Kleef, E., & van Trijp, H. C. M. (2018). Methodological challenges of research in nudging. In G. Ares & P. Verla (Eds.), Methods in consumer research, Vol. 1: New approaches to classic methods (pp. 329–349). Cambridge: Woodhead/Elsevier.

    Google Scholar 

  232. Variyam, J. N., & Cawley, J. (2006). Nutrition labels and obesity. NBER Working Paper no. 11956.

  233. Vetter, M., & Kutzner, F. (2016). Nudge me if you can: How defaults and attitude strength interact to change behavior. Comprehensive Results in Social Psychology, 1(1–3), 8–34.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  234. Volkow, N. D., Wang, G., & Baler, R. D. (2011). Reward, dopamine and the control of food intake: Implications for obesity. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 15(1), 37–46.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  235. Wadhera, D., & Capaldi-Phillips, E. D. (2014). A review of visual cues associated with food on food acceptance and consumption. Eating Behaviors, 15(1), 132–143.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  236. Wansink, B., & Hanks, A. S. (2014). Calorie reductions and within-meal calorie compensation in children’s meal combos. Obesity, 22(3), 630–632.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  237. Wansink, B., & Just, D. R. (2015). Trayless cafeterias lead diners to take less salad and relatively more dessert. Public Health Nutrition, 18(9), 1535–1536.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  238. Wansink, B., & Van Ittersum, K. (2013). Portion size me: Plate-size induced consumption norms and win-win solutions for reducing food intake and waste. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 19(4), 320–332.

    Google Scholar 

  239. Wansink, B., Painter, J. E., & North, J. (2005). Bottomless bowls: Why visual cues of portion size may influence intake. Obesity Research, 13(1), 93–100.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  240. Weingarten, E., Chen, Q., McAdams, M., Yi, J., Hepler, J., & Albarracín, D. (2016a). From primed concepts to action: A meta-analysis of the behavioral effects of incidentally presented words. Psychological Bulletin, 142(5), 472–497.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  241. Weingarten, E., Chen, Q., McAdams, M., Yi, J., Hepler, J., & Albarracín, D. (2016b). On priming action: Conclusions from a meta-analysis of the behavioral effects of incidentally-presented words. Current Opinion in Psychology, 12, 53–57.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  242. WHO. (2014). Health in all policies (HiAP). Framework for country action. Geneva: World Health Organization. Available at: http://www.who.int/healthpromotion/frameworkforcountryaction/en/.

  243. WHO Regional Office for Europe. (2014). European food and nutrition action plan 2015–2020. Copenhagen: World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe. Available at: http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/253727/64wd14e_FoodNutAP_140426.pdf.

  244. Wills, J. M., Grunert, K. G., Fernández Celemín, L., & Storcksdieck Genannt Bonsmann, S. (2009). Do European consumers use nutrition labels? Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech, 20(5), 60–62.

    Google Scholar 

  245. Wilson, A. L., Buckley, E., Buckley, J. D., & Bogomolova, S. (2016). Nudging healthier food and beverage choices through salience and priming. Evidence from a systematic review. Food Quality and Preference, 51, 47–64.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  246. Wisdom, J., Downs, J. S., & Loewenstein, G. (2010). Promoting healthy choices: Information versus convenience. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 2(2), 164–178.

    Google Scholar 

  247. Young, L. R., & Nestle, M. (2002). The contribution of expanding portion sizes to the US obesity epidemic. American Journal of Public Health, 92(2), 246–249.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  248. Zhang, L., & Rashad, I. (2008). Obesity and time preference: The health consequences of discounting the future. Journal of Biosocial Science, 40(1), 97–113.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  249. Zlatevska, N., Dubelaar, C., & Holden, S. S. (2014). Sizing up the effect of portion size on consumption: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Marketing, 78(3), 140–154.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to J. M. Bauer.

Additional information

The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework programme for research, technological development, and demonstration under grant agreement no 607310 (Nudge-it).

Appendix 1

Appendix 1

Fig. 2
figure2

Flow chart

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Bauer, J.M., Reisch, L.A. Behavioural Insights and (Un)healthy Dietary Choices: a Review of Current Evidence. J Consum Policy 42, 3–45 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10603-018-9387-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • Choice architecture
  • Food choice
  • Review
  • Behavioural policy
  • Nudge