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Table 3 Effects of selection incentive, own receipts and level of accountability on voting for the incumbent

From: Sanctioning, selection, and pivotality in voting: theory and experimental results

  Dependent variable—vote for the incumbent
(1) (2) (3)
IA 0.116*** 0.114*** 0.114***
(0.0246) (0.0238) (0.0238)
Own receipt 0.0129*** 0.0129*** 0.0116***
(0.000457) (0.000457) (0.000515)
Baseline: no accountability    
Partial accountability    0.130***
   (0.0168)
Full accountability    0.168***
   (0.0218)
Constant 0.140*** 0.0141 − 0.0788
(0.0148) (0.0803) (0.0696)
Controls No Yes Yes
No. of obs. 11592 11592 11592
R-squared 0.331 0.337 0.347
  1. Dependent variable takes value 1 if the vote is for the incumbent and 0 if the vote is for the challenger. IA is a dummy variable that equals 1 if there is an incumbency advantage (\(\theta >0\)) and 0 if there isn’t (\(\theta = 0\)). Variable own receipt is the amount the voter receives. Partial accountability variable takes 1 when the incumbent makes a non zero transfer to the voters but retains a part of the budget and 0 otherwise. Full accountability variable takes 1 when the incumbent transfers the entire budget to the voters and 0 otherwise. They are both compared to the baseline of no accountability. The controls include experimental rounds, gender and participation in a past election. Ordinary least squares (OLS). Standard errors are clustered at the individual level. Robust standard errors in parentheses
  2. *\(p<0.10\); **\(p<0.05\); ***\(p<0.01\)