A proposal for a more objective measure of de facto constitutional constraints
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In this paper we propose two new indicators of de facto constitutional constraints. The indicators are based on the presence or the absence of easily observable political events. This makes the proposed measures relatively objective and easy to verify relative to the most widely used indicators of de jure and de facto constitutions. This paper describes the indicators and demonstrates their usefulness for research on economic development.
KeywordsDe facto constitutional constraints Constitutional constraints Expert ranking Retrospective assessments Democracy and growth
JEL ClassificationP50 N40 O43 C81
We wish to thank the Editor in Chief Roger Congleton for his help that greatly influenced this article. We are also grateful to three anonymous referees for comments and references.
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