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Community Mental Health Journal

, Volume 54, Issue 7, pp 983–991 | Cite as

Meta-Analysis of Caregiver-Directed Psychosocial Interventions for Schizophrenia

  • Katie Ashcroft
  • Edward Kim
  • Erica Elefant
  • Carmela Benson
  • John A. Carter
Original Paper

Abstract

With the recent movement toward a personal-recovery paradigm to treat schizophrenia, the locus of mental health care delivery has shifted toward community-based care. Family caregivers comprise a substantial component of that community, and are often providing care for longer periods, but often have no formal training or support. Caregiver-directed psychosocial interventions (CDPI) have been developed to train and assist caregivers in their efforts to maximize the odds of treatment success for those in their care. This meta-analysis compared CDPI versus treatment as usual (TAU) on outcomes such as hospitalization, relapse, non-compliance, and “other outcomes” (emergency services utilization, suicide attempt, and death). A systematic literature search (2005–2015) was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials of outpatient administered CDPI versus TAU to treat adult patients recovering from schizophrenia. Relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals derived via random effects meta-analysis were calculated to compare CDPI versus TAU on the aforementioned outcomes. Eighteen of the 693 citations were retained for analysis. Overall RR for CDPI versus TAU suggested improved outcomes associated with CDPI: hospitalization [0.62 (0.46, 0.84) p < 0.00001], relapse [0.58 (0.47, 0.73) p < 0.00001] and other outcomes [0.70 (0.19, 2.57) p = 0.59]. CDPI was associated with significantly better compliance with medication and clinical activities combined [0.38 (0.19, 0.74) p = 0.005]. Medication compliance alone favored CDPI but was non-significant. Compliance with clinical activities alone favored CDPI significantly [0.22 (0.11, 0.47) p < 0.00001]. CDPI is associated with reductions in hospitalization, relapse, and treatment non-compliance.

Keywords

Schizophrenia Caregiver Psychosocial intervention Community-based care 

Notes

Funding

This study was funded by Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, of which EK, CB, and EE are employees. JC is an employee of EPI-Q, Inc., which received consulting fees from Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC related to the design and implementation of this study. KA, at the time of analysis and manuscript development, was an employee of MyHealios, Inc., which has an ongoing partnership with Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC to design and adapt a psychosocial intervention employed in Janssen-supported clinical trials. Neither KA nor MyHealios, Inc. received compensation related to the design, implementation, or report of this study.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katie Ashcroft
    • 1
  • Edward Kim
    • 2
  • Erica Elefant
    • 2
  • Carmela Benson
    • 2
  • John A. Carter
    • 3
  1. 1.Dr. Katie Ashcroft, LTDLancashireUK
  2. 2.Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLCTitusvilleUSA
  3. 3.EPI-Q, Inc.Oak BrookUSA

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