Community Mental Health Journal

, Volume 54, Issue 1, pp 27–32 | Cite as

Measuring Recurring Stigma in the Lives of Individuals with Mental Illness

  • Jerel M. EzellEmail author
  • Chien-Wen Jean Choi
  • Melanie M. Wall
  • Bruce G. Link
Brief Report


We present an exploratory factor analysis of the 8-item Daily Indignities of Mental Illness (DIMI) scale, created to measure the detection and perceptions of recurring stigma among individuals with recent psychiatric hospitalizations. Structured in-person interviews were conducted with individuals with recent psychiatric hospitalizations in metropolitan New York. The 8-item DIMI scale’s internal consistency for the sample (n = 65), measured by Cronbach’s alpha, was 0.869. Statistically significantly higher DIMI scale scores were observed among individuals with more than 2 psychotic episodes and those reporting seeing relatives less often after hospitalization. The DIMI scale possesses good internal consistency for research contextualizing perceptions around the occurrence or recurrence of mental illness-related stigma among individuals with recent psychiatric hospitalizations.


Stigma Micro-aggression Mental illness Self esteem Exploratory factor analysis 



We wish to thank the study participants and their mental healthcare providers for their commitment to this study. We also wish to thank the field and study staff for their hard work and dedication to the research being undertaken in this study.


The data collection and research carried out for this manuscript was funded by a grant from the National Institute of Mental Health (MH74996) and by funding from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Health and Society Scholars Program at Columbia University.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflict to report.

Supplementary material

10597_2017_156_MOESM1_ESM.docx (29 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCx 30 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jerel M. Ezell
    • 1
    Email author
  • Chien-Wen Jean Choi
    • 2
  • Melanie M. Wall
    • 3
    • 4
  • Bruce G. Link
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of SociologyUniversity of ChicagoChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Research Foundation for Mental HygieneNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Department of Biostatistics, Mailman School of Public HealthColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA
  5. 5.Department of SociologyUniversity of California RiversideRiversideUSA

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