Advertisement

Community Mental Health Journal

, Volume 51, Issue 2, pp 145–152 | Cite as

Suicide Risk and Mental Health Co-morbidities in a Probationer Population

  • Roberto CardarelliEmail author
  • Elizabeth Balyakina
  • Kendra Malone
  • Kimberly G. Fulda
  • Michael Ellison
  • Ron Sivernell
  • Tanjina Shabu
Original Paper

Abstract

Mental health problems are disproportionately represented in the community corrections system with limited information on the epidemiology of mental health and correlated factors such as suicide among probationers. This study recruited 2,077 probationers who completed screeners for mental health and substance disorders and suicide risk. Results found 13 % of probationers were at high risk of suicide. Those who screened positive for a mental health condition were between 2 and 8 times more likely to screen positive for suicide risk. Allocation of additional resources to mental health in the criminal justice system and to effectively coordinate existing mental health services is needed.

Keywords

Mental illness Suicide Probationers Substance abuse 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The study described was supported by Grant Number 2009040047 from the Meadows Foundation. The authors are grateful for the assistance of Kristen Hahn, William Effinger, the Tarrant County CSCD’s Treatment Alternative to Incarceration Program personnel, and the Primary Care Research Center staff of the University of North Texas Health Science Center in this project.

Conflict of interest

All authors listed declare no conflicts of interest. All authors declare that the manuscript is not being reviewed elsewhere and they do not intend to submit to any other journal until the review process is complete.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  2. Arroll, B., Goodyear-Smith, F., Kerse, N., Fishman, T., & Gunn, J. (2005). Effect of the addition of a “help” question to two screening questions on specificity for diagnosis of depression in general practice: Diagnostic validity study. BMJ, 331, 884–886.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beautrais, A. L. (2004). Further suicidal behavior among medically serious suicide attempters. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 34(1), 1–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Borges, G., Nock, M. K., Haro Abad, J. M., Hwang, I., Sampson, N. A., Alonso, J., et al. (2010). Twelve-month prevalence of and risk factors for suicide attempts in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 71(12), 1617–1628.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Burrell, W. (2005). Trends in probation and parole in the states The Book of the States 2005: The Council of State Governments. In File: Reprinted from.Google Scholar
  6. Cahill, B. S., Coolidge, F. L., Segal, D. L., Klebe, K. J., Marle, P. D., & Overmann, K. A. (2012). Prevalence of ADHD and its subtypes in male and female adult prison inmates. Behavioral Sciences & The Law, 30(2), 154–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Canetto, S. S., & Sakinofsky, I. (1998). The gender paradox in suicide. Suicide and Lifethreatening Behavior, 28(1), 1–23.Google Scholar
  8. Castillo, E. D., & Fiftal Alarid, L. (2011). Factors associated with recidivism among offenders with mental illness. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 55(1), 98–117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Coolidge, F. L., Segal, D. L., Klebe, K. J., Cahill, B. S., & Whitcomb, J. M. (2009). Psychometric properties of the Coolidge Correctional Inventory in a sample of 3,962 prison inmates. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 27(5), 713–726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cox, J. F., Morschauser, P. C., Banks, S., & Stone, J. L. (2001). A five-year population study of persons involved in the mental health and local correctional systems: Implications for service planning. Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 28(2), 177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Crilly, J. F., Caine, E. D., Lamberti, J. S., Brown, T., & Friedman, B. (2009). Mental health services use and symptom prevalence in a cohort of adults on probation. Psychiatric Services (Washington, D. C.), 60(4), 542–544. doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.60.4.542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cunningham, P. J. (2009). Beyond parity: Primary care physicians’ perspectives on access to mental health care. Health Affairs, 28(3), w490–w501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. DeNavas-Walt, C., Proctor, B. D., & Smith, J. C. (2012). U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, P60-243, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2011. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  14. Dennis, M. L., Chan, Y. F., & Funk, R. R. (2006). Development and validation of the GAIN short screener (GSS) for internalizing, externalizing and substance use disorders and crime/violence problems among adolescents and adults. The American Journal on Addictions, 15, s80–s91. doi: 10.1080/10550490601006055.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dennis, M., Feeney, T., Stevens, L., & Bedoya, L. (2008). Global appraisal of individual needsshort screener (GAIN-SS): Administration and Scoring Manual Version 2.0.3. Normal, IL.Google Scholar
  16. Ditton, P. (1999). Burea of justice statistics special report: Mental health and treatment of inmates and probationers.Google Scholar
  17. Eyestone, L. L., & Howell, R. J. (1994). An epidemiological study of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and major depression in a male prison population. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 22(2), 181–193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Fulwiler, C., Forbes, C., Santangelo, S. L., & Folstein, M. (1997). Self-mutilation and suicide attempt: Distinguishing features in prisoners. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law Online, 25(1), 69–77.Google Scholar
  19. Ginsberg, Y., Hirvikoski, T., & Lindefors, N. (2010). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among longer-term prison inmates is a prevalent, persistent and disabling disorder. BMC Psychiatry, 10(1), 112. doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-10-112.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Glaze, L. E., & Parks, E. (2012). Correctional populations in the United States, 2011. http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/cpus11.pdf.
  21. Gunter, T. D., Chibnall, J. T., Antoniak, S. K., Philibert, R. A., & Hollenbeck, N. (2011). Predictors of suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and self-harm without lethal intent in a community corrections sample. Journal of Criminal Justice Addiction and the Criminal Justice System, 39, 238–245.Google Scholar
  22. Harris, E. C., & Barraclough, B. (1997). Suicide as an outcome for mental disorders. A meta-analysis. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 170(3), 205–228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hausmann, L. R. M., Hannon, M. J., Kresevic, D. M., Hanusa, B. H., Kwoh, C. K., & Ibrahim, S. A. (2011). Impact of perceived discrimination in healthcare on patient-provider communication. Medical Care, 49(7), 626.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Held, M. L., Brown, C. A., Frost, L. E., Hickey, J. S., & Buck, D. S. (2012). Integrated primary and behavioral health care in patient-centered medical homes for jail releasees with mental illness. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 39(4), 533–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hogan, M. F. (2003). New freedom commission report: The president’s new freedom commission: Recommendations to transform mental health care in America. Psychiatric Services, 54(11), 1467–1474.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Impey, M., & Heun, R. (2012). Completed suicide, ideation and attempt in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 125(2), 93–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. James, A., Lai, F. H., & Dahl, C. (2004). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and suicide: A review of possible associations. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 110(6), 408–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kariminia, A., Law, M. G., Butler, T. G., Levy, M. H., Corben, S. P., Kaldor, J. M., et al. (2007). Suicide risk among recently released prisoners in New South Wales, Australia. Medical Journal of Australia, 187(7), 387–390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Kemp, D. E., Hirschfeld, R. M. A., Ganocy, S. J., Elhaj, O., Slembarski, R., Bilali, S., et al. (2008). Screening for bipolar disorder in a county jail at the time of criminal arrest. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 42(9), 778–786. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2007.08.001.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kessler, R. C., Adler, L., Ames, M., Demler, O., Faraone, S., & Hiripi, E. V. A. (2005). The World Health Organization adult ADHD self-report scale (ASRS): A short screening scale for use in the general population. Psychological Medicine, 35(02), 245–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kessler, R. C., & Berglund, P. (2005). Trends in suicide ideation, plans, gestures, and attempts in the United States, 1990–1992 to 2001–2003. JAMA, 293(20), 2487–2495. doi: 10.1001/jama.293.20.2487.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R. L., Williams, J. B. W., Monahan, P. O., & Löwe, B. (2007). Anxiety disorders in primary care: Prevalence, impairment, comorbidity, and detection. Annals of Internal Medicine, 146(5), W317–W377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Murphy, K., & Barkley, R. A. (1996). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder adults: Comorbidities and adaptive impairments. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 37(6), 393–401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, C. f. D. C. a. P. (2012). WISQARS leading causes of death reports. National and Regional, 1999–2010. Retrieved 1/9/2013. http://webappa.cdc.gov/sasweb/ncipc/leadcaus10_us.html.
  35. Nock, M. K., Hwang, I., Sampson, N., Kessler, R. C., Angermeyer, M., Beautrais, A., et al. (2009). Cross-national analysis of the associations among mental disorders and suicidal behavior: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. PLoS Med, 6(8), e1000123.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Oster, A., & Bindman, A. B. (2003). Emergency department visits for ambulatory care sensitive conditions: Insights into preventable hospitalizations. Medical Care, 41(2), 198–207. doi: 10.1097/01.MLR.0000045021.70297.9F.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Petersilia, J. (1997). Probation in the United States. Crime and Justice, 22, 149–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pirkis, J., & Burgess, P. (1998). Suicide and recency of health care contacts. A systematic review. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 173(6), 462–474.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pollack, H., & Khoshnood, K. (1999). Health care delivery strategies for criminal offenders. Journal of Health Care Finance, 26(1), 63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Pratt, D., Appleby, L., Piper, M., Webb, R., & Shaw, J. (2010). Suicide in recently released prisoners: A case-control study. Psychological Medicine, 40(05), 827–835.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Quality, C. f. B. H. S. a. (2011). Characteristics of probation and parole admissions aged 18 or older. Rockville, MD.Google Scholar
  42. Rihmer, Z., Gonda, X., Rihmer, A., & Fountoulakis, K. N. (2010). Suicidal and violent behaviour in mood disorders: A major public health problem. A review for the clinician. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice, 14(2), 88–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rösler, M., Retz, W., Retz-Junginger, P., Hengesch, G., Schneider, M., Supprian, T., et al. (2004). Prevalence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid disorders in young male prison inmates*. Paper presented at the European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00406-004-0516-z.
  44. Rösler, M., Retz, W., Yaqoobi, K., Burg, E., & Retz-Junginger, P. (2009). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in female offenders: Prevalence, psychiatric comorbidity and psychosocial implications. Paper presented at the European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00406-008-0841-8.
  45. Salisbury, E. J., Van Voorhis, P., & Spiropoulos, G. V. (2009). The predictive validity of a gender-responsive needs assessment: An exploratory study. Crime & Delinquency, 55(4), 550–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sattar, G. (2003). The death of offenders in England and Wales. Crisis, 24(1), 17–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Simon, V., Czobor, P., Bálint, S., Mészáros, Á., & Bitter, I. (2009). Prevalence and correlates of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: Meta-analysis. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 194(3), 204–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Smedley, B. D., & Stith, A. Y. (2003). Unequal treatment: Confronting racial and ethnic disparities in health care. National Academies Press: Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  49. Soumerai, S. B., McLaughlin, T. J., Ross-Degnan, D., Casteris, C. S., & Bollini, P. (1994). Effects of limiting medicaid drug-reimbursement benefits on the use of psychotropic agents and acute mental health services by patients with schizophrenia. Paper presented at the New England Journal of Medicine. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199409083311006.
  50. Spitzer, R. L., Kroenke, K., Williams, J. B. W., & Lowe, B. (2006). A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder: The GAD-7. Archives of Internal Medicine, 166(10), 1092–1097.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. States, T. P. C. o. t. (2008). One in 100: Behind bars in America 2008 (pp. 1–35).Google Scholar
  52. Taxman, F. S. (2008). No illusions: Offender and organizational change in maryland’s proactive community supervision efforts*. Criminology & Public Policy, 7(2), 275–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tondo, L., Isacsson, G., & Baldessarini, R. J. (2003). Suicidal behaviour in bipolar disorder: Risk and prevention. CNS Drugs, 17(7), 491–511.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Vaughn, M. G., DeLisi, M., Beaver, K. M., Perron, B. E., & Abdon, A. (2012). Toward a criminal justice epidemiology: Behavioral and physical health of probationers and parolees in the United States. Paper presented at the Journal of Criminal Justice. General Strain Theory and Criminal Justice. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047235212000542.
  55. Villagonzalo, K. A., Dodd, S., Ng, F., Mihaly, S., Langbein, A., & Berk, M. (2010). The utility of the Mood Disorders Questionnaire as a screening tool in a methadone maintenance treatment program. Paper presented at the International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13651501003686828.
  56. Whooley, M., Avins, A., Miranda, J., & Browner, W. (1997). Case-finding instruments for depression. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 12(7), 439–445.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wilper, A. P., Woolhandler, S., Lasser, K. E., McCormick, D., Bor, D. H., & Himmelstein, D. U. (2009a). Health insurance and mortality in US adults. American Journal of Public Health, 99(12), 2289–2295. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2008.157685.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wilper, A. P., Woolhandler, S., Lasser, K. E., McCormick, D., Bor, D. H., & Himmelstein, D. U. (2009b). Hypertension, diabetes, and elevated cholesterol among insured and uninsured U.S. adults. Health Affairs (Millwood), 28(6), w1151–w1159. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.28.6.w1151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wunderlich, U., Bronisch, T., Wittchen, H. U., & Carter, R. (2001). Gender differences in adolescents and young adults with suicidal behaviour. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 104(5), 332–339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roberto Cardarelli
    • 1
    Email author
  • Elizabeth Balyakina
    • 2
  • Kendra Malone
    • 2
  • Kimberly G. Fulda
    • 3
  • Michael Ellison
    • 4
  • Ron Sivernell
    • 5
  • Tanjina Shabu
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Community Medicine, Department of Family and Community MedicineUniversity of Kentucky College of MedicineLexingtonUSA
  2. 2.Primary Care Research Center, Texas Prevention InstituteUniversity of North Texas Health Science CenterFort WorthUSA
  3. 3.Department of Family Medicine, Primary Care Research Center, Texas Prevention InstituteUniversity of North Texas Health Science CenterFort WorthUSA
  4. 4.Department of Graduate Counseling ProgramsTexas Wesleyan UniversityFort WorthUSA
  5. 5.Tarrant County Community Supervision and Corrections DepartmentFort WorthUSA

Personalised recommendations