Outsourcing Mental Health Care Services? The Practice and Potential of Community-Based Farms in Psychiatric Rehabilitation
- 690 Downloads
Psychiatric rehabilitation supports individuals with mental disorders to acquire the skills needed for independent lives in communities. This article assesses the potential of outsourcing psychiatric rehabilitation by analysing care farm services in the Netherlands. Service characteristics were analysed across 214 care farms retrieved from a national database. Qualitative insights were provided by five case descriptions, selected from 34 interviews. Institutional care farms were significantly larger and older than private care farms (comprising 88.8 % of all care farms). Private, independent care farms provide real-life work conditions to users who are relatively less impaired. Private, contracted care farms tailor the work activities to their capacities and employ professional supervisors. Institutional care farms accommodate for the most vulnerable users. We conclude that collaborations with independent, contracted and institutional care farms would provide mental health care organizations with a diversity in services, enhanced community integration and a better match with users’ rehabilitation needs.
KeywordsFarms Rehabilitation Community integration Outsourcing professionalization Logistic regression
The authors would like to thank to Bart Jan Krouwel, chairman of the Federation for Agriculture and Care, for granting permission to use the data published online by the Federation.
Conflict of interest
This study was funded by TransForum Netherlands, a temporary collaborative programme between research institutes, Dutch government, non-governmental organisations and private sector, which conducted research on agriculture in a metropolitan context. TransForum Netherlands had no involvement in the design, data collection, analysis and interpretation, in the writing of the report or in the decision to submit the paper for publication. The authors report no conflicts of interest.
- Anthony, W., Cohen, M., Farkas, M., et al. (2002). Psychiatric rehabilitation (2nd ed.). Boston: Center for Psychiatric Rehabilitation.Google Scholar
- Di Iacovo, F., & O’Connor, D. (2009). Supporting policies for social farming in Europe. Firenze: Arsia.Google Scholar
- Elings, M., & Hassink, J. (2008). Green care farms, a safe community between illness or addiction and the wider society. International Journal of Therapeutic Communities, 29, 310–321.Google Scholar
- Federatie Landbouw en Zorg. (2011). Zorgboerderijen in Nederland. Retrieved May 31, 2011 from http://www.zorgboeren.nl/zorgboerderijen.php.
- Hassink, J., & Van Dijk, M. (2006). Farming for health. Green-care farming across Europe and the United States of America. Wageningen: Springer.Google Scholar
- Hickman, C. (2005). Therapeutic gardens: An overview of the history of hospital gardens in England from 1800. In Forum UNESCO University and Heritage, 10th International Seminar “Cultural Landscapes in the 21st Century”, Newcastle upon Tyne.Google Scholar
- Hine, R., Peacock, J., & Pretty, J. (2008). Care framing in the UK: Contexts, benefits and links with therapeutic communities. Therapeutic Communities, 29(3), 245–260.Google Scholar
- Iancu, S. C. (2013). New dynamics in mental health recovery and rehabilitation. The case of care farms. 's-Hertogenbosch: BOXPress.Google Scholar
- Patel, V., Weiss, H. A., Chowdhary, N., Naik, S., Pednekar, S., Chatterjee, S., et al. (2010). Effectiveness of an intervention led by lay health counsellors for depressive and anxiety disorders in primary care in Goa, India (MANAS): A cluster randomised controlled trial. The Lancet, 376(9758), 2086–2095.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- van Oostenbrugge, L., & Hutink, H. (2014). Keurmerken, certificaten en kwaliteitsverklaringen in de zorg. Een praktisch overzicht. Den Haag: Nictiz.Google Scholar
- ZonMW. (2010). Kennisagenda Zorg voor Zorglandbouw met innovatie, effectiviteit en doelmatigheid. Een verkenning naar mogelijkheden en draagvlak voor een kennisagenda Landbouw en Zorg. Den Haag: ZonMW.Google Scholar