Treatment Processes of Counseling for Children in South Sudan: A Multiple n = 1 Design
- 456 Downloads
Studies into treatment processes in low-income settings are grossly lacking, which contributes to the scarcity of evidence-based psychosocial treatment. We conducted multiple n = 1 studies, with quantitative outcome indicators (depression-, PTSD- and anxiety- symptoms, hope) and qualitative process indicators (treatment- perceptions, content and progress) measured before, during and after counseling. We aimed to explore commonalities in treatment processes associated with change profiles within and between cases. The study was conducted in South Sudan with children aged between 10 and 15 years. Change profiles were associated with the quality of the counselor-client relationship (instilling trust and hope through self-disclosure, supportive listening and advice giving), level of client activation, and the ability of the counselor to match treatment strategies to the client’s problem presentation (trauma- and emotional processing, problem solving, cognitive strategies). With limited time, due to restricted resources in low-income settings, training courses can now be better focused on key treatment processes.
KeywordsTreatment process Counseling South Sudan Single case Children
We would like to thank Eva Smallegange for her contributions to this study. This study was financed by a grant from PLAN Netherlands.
Conflict of interest
None of the authors have any competing interests to disclose.
- Berry, J. W., Poortinga, Y. H., Segall, M. H., & Dasen, P. R. (Eds.). (2002). Cross-cultural psychology: Research and applications (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Bhugra, D., & Bhui, K. (Eds.). (2007). Textbook of cultural psychiatry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Birmaher, B., Brent, D. A., Chiappetta, L., Bridge, J., Monga, S., & Baugher, M. (1999). Psychometric properties of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED): A replication study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 1230–1236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Egan, G. (1998). The skilled helper: A problem management approach to helping (6th ed.). California: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
- Frank, J. D., & Frank, J. B. (1991). Persuasion and healing: A comparative study of psychotherapy (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
- Ivey, A. E., & Ivey, M. (1999). Intentional interviewing and counseling: Facilitating client development in a multicultural society (4th ed.). California: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
- Jordans, M. J. D., Komproe, I. H., Tol, W. A., Smallegange, E., Ntamatumba, P., & de Jong, J. T. V. M. (2012). Potential treatment mechanisms of counselling for children in Burundi: A series of n = 1 studies. American Journal of American Orthopsychiatry, 82(3), 338–348.Google Scholar
- Jordans, M. J. D., Tol, W. A., Sharma, B., & van Ommeren, M. (2003). Training psychosocial counselling in Nepal: Content review of a specialised training programme. Intervention, 1, 18–35.Google Scholar
- Ngo, V., Langley, A., Kataoka, S. H., Nadeem, E., Escudero, P., & Stein, B. D. (2008). Providing evidence-based practice to ethnically diverse youth: Examples from the Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS) program. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 858–862.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Stiles, W. B. (2009). Logical operations in theory-building case studies. Pragmatic Case Studies in Psychotherapy, 5(3), 9–22.Google Scholar
- Support, B. F. f. P. (2006). Sudan: Conflict analysis and options for systemic conflict transformation. A Northern and Southern View: Berghof Foundation for Peace Support.Google Scholar
- Tol, W. A., Jordans, M. J. D., Reis, R., & De Jong, J. T. V. M. (2009). Ecological resilience: Working with child-related psychosocial resources in war-affected communities. In D. Brom, R. Pat-Horenczyk, & J. Ford (Eds.), Treating traumatized children: Risk, resilience, and recovery. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Wolpe, J. (1982). The practice of behaviour therapy. New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar