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Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds

, Volume 53, Issue 6–7, pp 760–778 | Cite as

Synthesis and characterization of multicyclic oxadiazoles and 1-hydroxytetrazoles as energetic materials

  • Philip F. Pagoria
  • Mao-Xi Zhang
  • Nathaniel B. Zuckerman
  • Alan J. DeHope
  • Damon A. Parrish
Article

Synthesis and characterization of several multicyclic oxadiazoles, 3,5-bis(4-nitrofurazan-3-yl)-1,2,4-oxadiazole, 3,3'-bis(4-nitrofurazan-3-yl)-5,5'-bi(1,2,4-oxadiazole), 3-(4-nitrofurazan-3-yl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-amine, and salts of 1-hydroxytetrazoles, ammonium 5,5'-(1,2,4-oxadiazole-3,5-diyl)bis(1H-tetrazol-1-olate) and hydroxylammonium 5,5'-{[3,3'-bi(1,2,4-oxadiazole)]-5,5'-diyl}bis(1H-tetrazol-1-olate), as energetic materials are reported. Two of the compounds, 3,5-bis(4-nitrofurazan-3-yl)-1,2,4-oxadiazole and 3,3'-bis(4-nitrofurazan-3-yl)-5,5'-bi(1,2,4-oxadiazole), have attractive single crystal densities of 1.91 and 1.94 g·cm–3 (at 20°C), respectively. The design of these materials has been based on the idea that these multicyclic compounds with a 1,2,4-oxadiazole core will have good thermal stability and high density because of their 3,5-substitution pattern and the possibility of achieving a planar conformation. The various synthetic approaches and interesting chemistry observed during the construction of these new heterocycles has been described.

Keywords

furazans 1-hydroxytetrazoles nitroheterocycles 1,2,4-oxadiazoles tetrazoles energetic materials 

Notes

This work has been performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. The authors are grateful for financial support from the Joint DoD/DOE Munitions Technology Development Program and the DOE Campaign 2 Program.

We would like to thank Stephen Strout, Levi Merrill, Fowzia Zaka, Ginger Guillen, and Jennifer Montgomery for completing the small-scale safety testing on our compounds and Heather Mulcahy for performing high-resolution MS analysis.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philip F. Pagoria
    • 1
  • Mao-Xi Zhang
    • 1
  • Nathaniel B. Zuckerman
    • 1
  • Alan J. DeHope
    • 1
  • Damon A. Parrish
    • 2
  1. 1.Lawrence Livermore National LaboratoryLivermoreUSA
  2. 2.U.S. Naval Research LaboratoryWashingtonUSA

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