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Genetic legacies of translocation and relictual populations of American marten at the southeastern margin of their distribution

  • Cody M. AylwardEmail author
  • James D. Murdoch
  • C. William Kilpatrick
Research Article

Abstract

American marten were extirpated from much of their native range in the northeastern United States as a result of land development and overharvesting before the mid-twentieth century. Based on occurrence records, recolonization in the late twentieth century was believed to have occurred via natural population expansion from two refugia: northern Maine and the eastern Adirondack Mountains of New York. Furthermore, a 1989–1991 reintroduction attempt in southern Vermont was originally declared unsuccessful, but marten have been rediscovered in southern Vermont since 2010. We used molecular techniques to resolve uncertain population histories and estimate contemporary levels of genetic variation and gene flow in marten populations in the northeastern United States. We sequenced a 320 bp segment of the control region (D-loop) of mtDNA in 112 individuals and amplified 10 microsatellite loci in 111 individuals. Five genetic clusters were identified in the northeastern United States based on the microsatellite data: (1) Maine, (2) New Hampshire, (3) eastern Adirondacks (New York), (4) western Adirondacks (New York), and (5) southern Vermont. Clustering and assignment tests suggest that individuals in southern Vermont are most likely to have originated in Maine—the primary source of the reintroduction. However, we were unable to rule out the possibility of a relict population in southern Vermont. Population expansion in New Hampshire appears to be the primary source of recolonization in northeastern Vermont. Additionally, dispersers from the reintroduction attempt may have spread to northeastern Vermont. Genetic diversity is lower in the entire northeastern United States than an interior population in Ontario, Canada. This study improves our understanding of population history in the northeastern United States. Relict populations of marten may have persisted through the nineteenth and twentieth centuries where they were believed to have been extirpated. Recognizing and conserving all of the distinct subsets of native genetic diversity in the region could promote long-term population health.

Keywords

Genetic diversity Genetic structure Martes Peripheral populations Reintroduction Relictual populations 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank the Vermont Fish and Wildlife Department and University of Vermont for funding, and Chris Bernier (Vermont Fish and Wildlife Department), Kim Royar (Vermont Fish and Wildlife Department), Paul Jensen (New York Department of Environmental Conservation), Jillian Kilborn (New Hampshire Fish and Game Department), Alexej Sirén (University of Massachusetts Amherst), Cory Mosby (Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife), and volunteer trappers from Maine for providing tissue samples for genetic analyses. Katherine O’Shea conducted preliminary microsatellite amplifications.

Supplementary material

10592_2018_1130_MOESM1_ESM.docx (3.6 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 3675 KB)

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cody M. Aylward
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • James D. Murdoch
    • 1
  • C. William Kilpatrick
    • 3
  1. 1.Wildlife and Fisheries Biology Program, Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural ResourcesUniversity of Vermont, George D. Aiken CenterBurlingtonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Fish, Wildlife and Conservation BiologyUniversity of California, DavisDavisUSA
  3. 3.Department of BiologyUniversity of VermontBurlingtonUSA

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