Conservation Genetics

, Volume 19, Issue 2, pp 255–263 | Cite as

Highly diversified population structure of the spider Lycosa ishikariana inhabiting sandy beach habitats

  • Akio Tanikawa
  • Akira Shinkai
  • Haruki Tatsuta
  • Tadashi Miyashita
Research Article


Sandy beach ecosystems are decreasing worldwide and organisms living there are becoming threatened. The burrowing wolf spider Lycosa ishikariana is one such example. To establish effective conservation strategies under habitat fragmentation, we examined population genetic structure of L. ishikariana from mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene and 6 microsatellite loci. Mitochondrial sequence data revealed 6 population subgroups with very high fixation indices, indicating that L. ishikariana has a clear phylogeographic structure and that the level of differentiation among regions is considerable. In particular, one subgroup in the western Honshu mainland (clade G) has a highly distinct genetic structure, despite having no clear geographic barriers from its parapatric population. Moreover, the distribution ranges of the other two subgroups (clades D and E) were highly restricted, suggesting their vulnerability to local human impacts and highlighting their high conservation priorities. Microsatellite data revealed 10 subgroups that were compatible with the clades identified from the mitochondrial data. Fixation indices among these groups were very high, indicating a limited gene flow induced by male spiders. Based on these results, we proposed six conservation units of L. ishikariana and effective conservation/restoration strategies in the face of ongoing coastal armoring.


Conservation Endangered Mitochondria Microsatellite 



We wish to thank Nobuo Tsurusaki for his offering specimens and references for this study. Our sincere thanks are also due to Mayumi Matsuda, Naotake Inoue, Akihiko Yawata and Yuki G. Baba for useful information. This work was supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (22924019, 15H04325 & 15H00453).

Supplementary material

10592_2017_996_MOESM1_ESM.docx (33 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 32 KB)
10592_2017_996_MOESM2_ESM.jpg (436 kb)
The result of hierarchical STRUCTURE analysis of 6 microsatellite loci from Lycosa ishikariana. 1 to 43 represent the sampling sites, as in Fig. 1 and Table 1. Supplementary material 2 (JPEG 436 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Biodiversity Science, School of Agriculture and Life SciencesThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  2. 2.TokyoJapan
  3. 3.Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of the RyukyusOkinawaJapan

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