Genetic structure of the critically endangered plant Tricyrtis ishiiana (Convallariaceae) in relict populations of Japan
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Tricyrtis ishiiana is a relic endemic plant taxon of the Convallariaceae that inhabits two nearby gorges in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. The distribution range and number of populations are thought to have been reduced to the present refugial populations during the Quaternary climatic oscillations. Because of its showy flowers, this plant has faced illegal removal from its natural habitats for horticultural use and has been designated a critically endangered species (class IA). In this study, we analyzed the genetic structure of the relict populations of T. ishiiana in order to contribute to the conservation strategies of the prefectural government. Our analyses of nine nuclear microsatellite loci detected high genetic diversity (HE = 0.704 and HO = 0.541) for the two populations. The two populations were slightly differentiated (RST = 0.032), accompanied by faint substructure across the populations (K = 3). In addition, each population exhibited spatial genetic structuring. The relatively low inbreeding coefficient for both populations together (FIS = 0.233) and each population separately (FIS = 0.217–0.246) may be attributable to crossing among descendants within a population along with occasional gene flow between the populations. These results suggested that the extant populations have not experienced a severe bottleneck. The two extant populations were genetically differentiated at a very low level, accompanied by occasional pollen flow via pollinators and/or seed dispersal by gravity in the mountainous environment. Occasional gene exchange between the populations has allowed T. ishiiana to harbor high genetic diversity despite being a relic plant confined to two small refugial populations.
KeywordsConvallariaceae Gene flow Microsatellite Refugia Tricyrtis ishiiana
We are grateful to Ms. Akiko Sakai (Kanagawa Prefecture Natural Environment Conservation Center), and Asuka Noda, Kanako Sugahara and Tomomi Dan (Kyoto University) for their cooperation in collecting materials and extracting DNA, respectively. Prof. Masayuki Maki (Tohoku University) kindly showed us his unpublished data (currently in press). This study was supported by a grant for Conservation Genetics for Endangered Plants from Kanagawa Prefecture Natural Environment Conservation Center.
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