Phylogeographical structure and conservation genetics of wild grapevine
- 389 Downloads
The distribution of Vitis vinifera subsp. silvestris, the wild grapevine subspecies of Vitis vinifera L., has been dramatically reduced in its major sites of diffusion, at first by the spread, over the last 150 years, of pathogens from North America and, more recently, with fragmentation of habitat and disbranching by humans. In this work, 418 wild grapevine samples, belonging to 78 populations, were collected in their main Mediterranean distribution areas, including the Caucasus area, and the extent of their genetic variability evaluated by analysing plastid microsatellite DNA polymorphism. Results show low haplotype diversity value, with five haplotypes detected within the analysed populations. The highest within-population haplotypic diversity, with the presence of all five detected haplotypes, was found in the Caucasus regions and in the central regions of Italy. The distribution of all detected haplotypes suggests the Caucasian region as the possible center of origin of Vitis vinifera subsp. silvestris. A principal plastid lineage was found to be fixed in several locations, in the Northernmost European countries and in the Southern island of Sardinia. These results draw attention to two different refugium sites in the Mediterranean basin and suggest that conservation priority should be given to grapevine populations still preserved in hotspots of these regions.
Key wordsbiodiversity chloroplast microsatellite conservation phylogeography populations Vitis vinifera subsp. silvestris
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
This research was supported by the Italian Ministry of Environment and Environmental Protection, within the research project “Research and development in biotechnology applied to the protection of the environment, in collaboration with the Popular Republic of China” (years 2005–2007) and by the FIRB-RNBE01SF project, MIUR, Italy. We wish to thank W. Tiefenbrunner, F.␣Regner, P. Madera, F. Selvi., M.A. Lopez, G.␣Lovicu, for their valuable help in collecting wild grapewine and Roberto Brontini for technical assistance in the molecular analysis.
- Anzani R, Failla O, Scienza A, Campostrini F (1990) Wild grapevine (Vitis vinifera var. silvestris) in Italy: distribution, characteristics and germplasm preservation – report. Vitis, 97–112. Special issueGoogle Scholar
- Arnold C, Gilett F, Gobat JM (1998) Situation de la vigne sauvage Vitis vinifera L sp. Sylvestris (Gmelin) Hegi en Europe. Vitis 37(4):159–170Google Scholar
- Arnold C, Schnitzler A, Douard A (2002) Conservation and reintroduction of rare forest species: an example from wild grapevine (Vitis vinifera ssp. silvestris Gmelin, Hegi) in Alsace. Oral communication, Internation Symposium on Dynamics and Conservation of Genetic Diversity in Forest Ecoystems, Strasbourg, 2–5 December 2002.Google Scholar
- Dumolin-Lapègue S, Demesure B, Petit RJ (1995) Inheritance of chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes in pedunculate oak investigated with an efficient PCR-based method. Theor. App. Genet. 91:1253–1256Google Scholar
- Ennos RA (1994) Estimating the relative rates of pollen and seed migration among plant populations. Heredity 80:584–593Google Scholar
- Hegi G (1925) Illustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa. Karl Hans Verlag, MünchenGoogle Scholar
- Holub J, Procházka F (2000) Red list of vascular plants of the Czech Republic. Preslia 72: 187–230Google Scholar
- Kozjak P, Korosec-Koruza Z, Javornik B (2003) Characterisation of cv. Refosk (Vitis vinifera L.) by SSR markers. Vitis. 42: 83–86Google Scholar
- Labra M, Moriondo G, Schnaeider A, Grassi F, Failla O, Scienza O, Sala F (2002a) Biodiversity of grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) grown in the Aosta Valley. Vitis 41(2): 89–92Google Scholar
- Labra M, Failla O, Forni G, Ghiani A, Scienza A, Sala F (2002b) Microsatellite analysis to define genetic diversity of grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) grown in Central and Western Mediterranean countries. Journal International des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin 36: 11–20Google Scholar
- Labra M, Carreno-Sanchez E, Bardini M, Basso B, Sala F, Scienza A (2001) Extraction and purification of DNA from grapevine leaves. Vitis 40: 101–102Google Scholar
- Lacombe T (2002) Contribution a‘ la caracte’risation et a‘ la protection in situ des populations de Vitis vinifera L. spp silvestris (Gmelin) Hegi, en France. Oral communication, BRG National Symposium, La Châtre-BerryGoogle Scholar
- Negrul AM (1938) Evolution of cultivated forms of grapes. CR Acad. USSR N.S. 18: 585–588Google Scholar
- Ocete R, López MA, Pérez MA, Del Tío R, Lara M (1999) Las poblaciones espanolas de vid silvestre: Característics de un recurso fitogenetico a conservar. Monografías INIA, Agrícola, Madrid, pp. 1–52Google Scholar
- This P, Jung A, Boccacci P, Borrego J, Botta R, Costantini L, Crespan M, Dangl GS, Eisenheld C, Ferreira-Monteiro F, Grando S, Ibanez J, Lacombe T, Laucou V, Magalhaes R, Meredith CP, Milani N, Peterlunger E, Regner F, Zulini L, Maul E (2004) Development of a standard set of microsatellite reference alleles for identification of grape cultivars. Theor. Appl. Genet. 109: 1448–1458CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar