Advertisement

Contemporary Family Therapy

, Volume 40, Issue 4, pp 338–345 | Cite as

The Spanish and Catalan Versions of the Parent Development Interview-Revised (PDI-R): Adaptation and Validation Process

  • Marta Golanó Fornells
  • Carles Pérez Téstor
  • Manel Salamero Baró
Original Paper

Abstract

The reflective function (RF) or mentalization is nowadays considered a concept with a great explanatory and therapeutic potential. In this article we present the adaptation and validation of Parent Development Interview-Revised (PDI-R) to the Spanish and Catalan languages. It was performed by a cross-sectional design with a non-clinical sample of 61 Spanish and Catalan speaking mothers of under five mentally healthy children. The same sample responded to an Adult Attachment Questionnaire and to the Child Behavior Check List. The construct hypothesis based on attachment theory and mentalization research, expected a positive correlation between the parental RF level and adult attachment. Other hypothesis did not predict significant differences in the results of the two subsamples depending on sociodemographic characteristics. The results do confirm the hypothesis considered in a concordance way with the literature. The discussion provides some qualitative analysis closer to what is expected of the PDI-R’s clinical uses as a frame to work with parents. This study represents the PDI-R’s introduction in the Spanish and Catalan speaking population over the world. We think it opens the door to further research assessing the parental RF with Spanish speaking parents’ samples as well as to guide the clinical work with them.

Keywords

Parental reflective function Early intervention Early child development Mentalization clinical uses Intergenerational transmission of attachment 

References

  1. Achembach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2000). Manual for the ASEBA preschool forms & profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont. Research Centre for Children, Youth and Families.Google Scholar
  2. Bartholomew, K., & Horowitz, L. M. (1991). Attachment styles among young adults: A test of a four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(2), 226–244.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.61.2.226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bateman, A. W., & Fonagy, P. (Eds.). (2012). Handbook of mentalizing in mental health practice. London: American Psychiatric Publishing.  https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470712986.ch9.
  4. Beaton, D. E., Bombardier, C., Guillemin, F., & Ferraz, M. B. (2000). Guidelines for the process of cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. Spine, 25(24), 3186–3191.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00007632-200012150-00014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beebe, B. (2017). Daniel Stern: Microanalysis and the empirical infant research foundations. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 37(4), 228–241.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07351690.2017.1299498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berthelot, N., Ensink, K., Bernazzani, O., Normandin, L., Luyten, P., & Fonagy, P. (2015). Intergenerational transmission of attachment in abused and neglected mothers: The role of trauma-specific reflective functioning. Infant Mental Health Journal, 36(2), 200–212.  https://doi.org/10.1002/imhj.21499.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Besoain, C., & Santelices, M. P. (2009). Transmisión Intergeneracional del Apego y Función Reflexiva Materna: Una Revisión. Terapia Psicológica, 27(1), 113–118.  https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-48082009000100011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bretherton, I. (1992). The origins of attachment theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. Developmental Psychology, 28, 759–775.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.28.5.759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ensink, K., Normandin, L., Plamondon, A., Berthelot, N., & Fonagy, P. (2016). Intergenerational pathways from reflective functioning to infant attachment through parenting. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue Canadienne Des Sciences Du Comportement, 48(1), 9–18.  https://doi.org/10.1037/cbs0000030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Espasa, F. P. (2004). Parent–infant psychotherapy, the transition to parenthood and parental narcissism: Implications for treatment. Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 30(2), 155–171.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00754170410001734772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fantini, F., Aschieri, F., & Bertrando, P. (2013). Is our daughter crazy or bad? A case study of therapeutic assessment with children. Contemporary Family Therapy, 35(4), 731–744.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10591-013-9265-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fonagy, P., & Luyten, P. (2009). A developmental, mentalization-based approach to the understanding and treatment of borderline personality disorder. Developmental Psychopathology, 21, 1355–1381.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579409990198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fonagy, P., Steele, H., & Steele, M. (1991). Maternal representations of attachment during pregnancy predict the organization of infant-mother attachment at one year of age. Child Development, 62(5), 891–905.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1131141.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Fonagy, P., & Target, M. (1997). Attachment and reflective function: Their role in self-organization. Development and Psychopathology, 9(4), 679–700.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579497001399.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Fonagy, P., & Target, M. (2005). Bridging the transmission gap: An end to an important mystery of attachment research? Attachment & Human Development, 7(3), 333–343.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14616730500269278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fonagy, P., & Target, M. (2006). The mentalization-focused approach to self pathology. Journal of Personality Disorders, 20(6), 544–576.  https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.2006.20.6.544.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Fonagy, P., Target, M., Steele, H., & Steele, M. (1998). Reflective-functioning manual version 5 for application to adult attachment interviews. London.  https://doi.org/10.1037/t03490-000.
  18. Gjersing, L., Caplehorn, J. R. M., & Clausen, T. (2010). Cross-cultural adaptation of research instruments: Language, setting, time and statistical considerations. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 10, 13.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-10-13.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Golanó, M., & Pérez, C. (2013). Mentalització i Vincle. Revista Catalana de Psicoanàlisi, XXX/1, 67–77. Retrieved from http://www.raco.cat/index.php/RCP/article/view/303361/393030
  20. Grienenberger, J. F., Kelly, K., & Slade, A. (2005). Maternal reflective functioning, mother-infant affective communication, and infant attachment: Exploring the link between mental states and observed caregiving behavior in the intergenerational transmission of attachment. Attachment & Human Development, 7(3), 299–311.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14616730500245963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Grimalt, A. (2013). ¿MENTALIZACIÓN O TRANSFORMACIÓN? Experiencia sensorial vs. experiencia emocional. Temas de Psicoanálisis, 5, 1–30. Retrieved from http://www.temasdepsicoanalisis.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/PDF-GRIMALT-FINAL13.pdf.
  22. Hemphill, J. F. (2003). Interpreting the Magnitudes of correlation coefficients. American Psychologist, 58(1), 78–79.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.58.1.78.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Ibáñez, M. (2013). El estudio del apego y de la función reflexiva: Instrumentos para el diagnóstico y la intervención terapéutica en salud mental. Temas de Psicoanálisis, 5, 1–26. Retrieved from http://www.temasdepsicoanalisis.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/Pdf-M-Ib%C3%A1%C3%B1ez1.pdf.
  24. Johnson, L. N., Ketring, S. A., & Abshire, C. (2003). The Revised inventory of parent attachment: Measuring attachment in families. Contemporary Family Therapy, 25(3), 333–349.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024563422543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jurist, E., Slade, A., & Bergner, S. (Eds.). (2008). Mind to mind. Infant research, neuroscience and psychoanalysis. New York: Other Press.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-8315.2009.00225_1.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lester, B. M., & Sparrow, J. (Eds.)., (2010). Nurturing children and families: Building on the Legacy of T. Berry Brazelton. Wiley.  https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444324617.Google Scholar
  27. Lloyd, B. (2007). Attachment and intersubjectivity—by Nicola Diamond and Mario Marrone attachment theory and the psychoanalytic process—edited by Mauricio Cortina and Mario Marrone. British Journal of Psychotherapy, 24(1), 108–112.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0118.2007.00067_4.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Luyten, P., Mayes, L. C., Nijssens, L., & Fonagy, P. (2017). The parental reflective functioning questionnaire: Development and preliminary validation. PLoS ONE, 12(5), e0176218.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0176218.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Main, M. (2000). The organized categories of infant, child and adult attachment: Flexible versus Inflexible attention under attachment related stress. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 48(4), 1055–1127.  https://doi.org/10.1177/00030651000480041801.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Main, M., Kaplan, N., & Cassidy, J. (1985). Security in infancy, childhood and adulthood: A move to the level of representation. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 50(1/2), 66–104.  https://doi.org/10.2307/3333827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Melero, R., & Cantero, M. J. (2008). Los estilos afectivos en la población española: un cuestionario de evaluación del apego adulto. Clínica y Salud, 19(1), 83–100. Retrieved from http://scielo.isciii.es/pdf/clinsa/v19n1/v19n1a04.pdf.
  32. Ordway, M. R., Sadler, L. S., Dixon, J., & Slade, A. (2014). Parental reflective functioning: Analysis and promotion of the concept for paediatric nursing. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 23(23–24), 3490–3500.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.12600.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Rescorla, L. A. (2005). Assessment of young children using the Achenbach system of empirically based assessment (ASEBA). Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 11(3), 226–237.  https://doi.org/10.1002/mrdd.20071.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Sharp, C., & Fonagy, P. (2008). The parent’s capacity to treat the child as a psychological agent: Constructs, measures and implications for developmental psychopathology. Social Development, 13(3), 735–754.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00457.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Shaver, P., & Cassidy, J. (Eds.). (2008). Handbook of attachment. Theory, research and clinical applications (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0003065110368853.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Slade, A. (2005). Parental reflective functioning: An introduction. Attachment & Human Development, 7(3), 269–281.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14616730500245906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Slade, A., Aber, J., Cohen, L. J., Fiorello, J., Meyer, J., Desear, P., & Waller, S. (2003a). The parent development interview. London (unpublished manuscript).Google Scholar
  38. Slade, A., Bernbach, E., Grienenberger, J., Wohlgemuth, D., & Locker, A. (2003b). Addendum to reflective functioning scoring manual for use with the parent development interview. New York (unpublished manuscript).Google Scholar
  39. Slade, A., & Sadler, L. (2007). Minding the baby. In L. Mayes, P. Fonagy & M. Target (Eds.), Developmental Science and Psychoanalysis. London: Karnac.  https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470712986.ch14.
  40. Steele, H., Steele, M., & Murphy, A. (2009). Use of the adult attachment interview to measure process and change in psychotherapy. Psychotherapy Research, 19(6), 633–643.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10503300802609698.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Thalheimer, W., & Cook, S. (2002). How to calculate effect sizes from published research: A simplified methodology. Work Learning Research.  https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2004.078915.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Whitefield, C., & Midgley, N. (2015). “And when you were a child?” How therapists working with parents alongside individual child psychotherapy bring the past into their work. Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 9370, 1–21.  https://doi.org/10.1080/0075417X.2015.1092678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wild, D., Grove, A., Martin, M., Eremenco, S., McElroy, S., Verjee-Lorenz, A., & Erikson, P. (2005). Principles of good practice for the translation and cultural adaptation process for patient-reported outcomes (PRO) measures: Report of the ISPOR Task Force for Translation and Cultural Adaptation. Value in Health, 8(2), 94–104.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-4733.2005.04054.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.FPCEE – BlanquernaBarcelonaSpain

Personalised recommendations