Electronic Communication in Supervisory Relationships: A Mixed Data Survey
- 294 Downloads
Much has been written about online communication between therapists and clients, particularly regarding the feasibility, ethics, and frequency of such practices. Little, however, has been published with regard to electronic communication patterns between therapists and their supervisors. The purpose of this study was to understand if and how electronic communication is used between marriage and family therapy (MFT) supervisees and supervisors. To accomplish this, we administered a mixed data survey to MFT supervisors and supervisees across the United States regarding frequency of interaction via electronic methods. We also assessed comfort level with online supervision, how supervisory participants make determinations when to use online supervision, and when online communication is believed to be most appropriate within MFT supervision. We report both qualitative and quantitative findings regarding the use of online technologies in supervision. Implications for research, training, and supervision are discussed.
KeywordsCyber supervision Marriage and family therapy supervision Online supervision
This project was funded by a grant from the Alaska Association for Marriage and Family Therapy obtained by the first and second authors. Parts of this manuscript were previously presented at the: 2012 Alaska Association for Marriage and Family Therapy Annual Conference in Anchorage, AK, 2012 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy Annual Conference in Charlotte, NC, and at the 2013 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy Annual Conference in Portland, OR.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
- Bacigalupe, G. (2010). Supervision 2.0: E-supervision a decade later. Family Therapy Supervisor Bulletin, 9, 38–41. Retrieved from http://works.bepress.com/gonzalo_bacigalupe/9/.
- Blumer, M. L. C. (2014). Ecological elements in couple and family therapy technological practice. MFT Courier, 28(2), 2–5.Google Scholar
- Blumer, M. L. C. (2015). Couple and family therapy technology practices: A framework for ethical engagement. Family Therapy Magazine, 40–45. Retrieved from http://dx5br1z4f6n0k.cloudfront.net/imis15/Documents/JA15.FTM.singlepage.compressed.pdf.
- Blumer, M. L. C., & Hertlein, K. M. (2012). Addressing ambiguity in e-practice management: Family therapy and supervision in a digital age. Family Therapy Magazine, 16–18. Retrieved from http://www.aamft.org/iMIS15/magazine/NovDec2012/.
- Chapman, R. A. (2006). Cybersupervision of entry level practicum supervisees: The effect on acquisition of counselor competence and confidence (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC. Retrieved from http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/resolver/1840.16/5097.
- Chapman, R. A., Baker, S. B., Nassar-McMillan, S. C., & Gerler, E. R. (2011). Cybersupervision: Further examination of synchronous and asynchronous modalities in counseling practicum supervision. Counselor Education and Supervision, 50, 298–313. doi: 10.1002/j.1556-6978.2011.tb01917.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cheon, H., Blumer, M. L. C., Shih, A., Murphy, M. J., & Sato, M. (2009). The influence of supervisor and supervisee matching, role conflict, and supervisory relationship on supervisee satisfaction. Contemporary Family Therapy: An International Journal, 31, 52–67. doi: 10.1007/s10591-008-9078-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Coker, J. K., Jones, W. P., Staples, P. A., & Harbach, R. L. (2002). Cyber supervision in the first practicum: Implications for research and practice. Guidance and Counselling, 18(1), 33–38. Retrieved from http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/9989271/cybersupervision-first-practicum-implications-research-practice.
- Coursol, D. (2004). Cybersupervision: Conducting supervision on the information superhighway (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED478221). Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED478221.pdf.
- Creswell, J. W., & Clark, V. L. P. (2007). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Duggan, M., Ellison, N. B., Lampe, C., Lenhart, A., & Madden, M. (2015). Social Media Update 2014. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/data-trend/social-media/social-media-use-by-age-group/.
- Greenwalt, B. C. (2001). Cybersupervision: Some ethical issues. AAMFT Supervision Bulletin, 12–14. Retrieved from http://mftcourses.net/documents/greenwalt%202001.pdf.
- Lambert, M. J., & Bergin, A. E. (1994). The effectiveness of psychotherapy. In A. E. Bergin & S. L. Garfield (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (4th ed., pp. 143–189). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- McAdams, C. R., & Wyatt, K. L. (2010). The regulation of technology-assisted distance counseling and supervision in the United States: An analysis of current extent, trends, and implications. Counselor Education and Supervision, 49, 179–192. doi: 10.1002/j.1556-6978.2010.tb00097.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Merriam, S. B. (2002). Qualitative research in practice: Examples for discussion and analysis. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
- Myrick, R. D., & Russell, S. A. (1995). Cyberspace: New place for counselor supervision. Elementary School Guidance and Counseling, 30, 35–44. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/42871190.
- National Board of Certified Counselors. (2008). The practice of Internet counseling. Greensboro, NC: Center for Credentialing and Education, Inc. Retrieved from http://www.nbcc.org/Assets/Ethics/internetCounseling.pdf.
- Nelson, J. A., Nichter, M., & Henriksen, R. (2010). On-line supervision and face-to-face supervision in the counseling internship: An exploratory study of similarities and differences. Retrieved from http://counselingoutfitters.com/vistas/vistas10/Article_46.pdf.
- Rousmaniere, T., Abbass, A., Frederickson, J., Henning, I., & Taubner, S. (2014b). Videoconference for psychotherapy training and supervision: Two case examples. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 68, 231–250. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Tony_Rousmaniere/publication/264352005_Videoconference_for_Psychotherapy_Training_and_Supervision_Two_Case_Examples/links/540a3e560cf2d8daaabfa2d7.pdf.
- Stemler, S. (2001). An overview of content analysis. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 7(17). Retrieved from http://pareonline.net/getvn.asp?v=7&n=17.
- Storm, C. L. (2002). Teaching therapists to become supervisors. In T. C. Todd & C. L. Storm (Eds.), The complete systemic supervisor: Context, philosophy, and pragmatics (pp. 363–372). Lincoln, NE: Authors Choice Press.Google Scholar
- Twist, M. L. C., & Hertlein, K. M. (in press). Ethical couple and family e-therapy. In M. J. Murphy & L. Hecker (Eds.), Ethics and professional issues in couple and family therapy (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Watson, J. C. (2003). Implementing computer technology into the delivery of counseling supervision. Journal of Technology in Supervision, 3. Retrieved from http://telehealth.org/manual-uploads-webpage-attach/ComputerBasedSupervision.pdf.
- Workfront (2015). The work-life imbalance report. Retrieved August from http://www.workfront.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/5/2015/04/workfront-work-life-imbalance-report.pdf.