Skip to main content

Minimizing delay in content-centric networks using heuristics-based in-network caching


Content-centric networking (CCN) has emerged as a promising future Internet architecture that brings effective content retrieval mechanism. In CCN, the contents are accessed using their names instead of searching for the host location in the network. To improve Quality-of-Service for the users, CCN offers the in-network caching capability that places the incoming contents in the intermediate on-path nodes. During content retrieval, the in-network caching reduces network delay and bandwidth requirements as the requester access the content from the nearest node having a copy of the required content. Therefore, it is crucial to control the content caching decisions in the CCN as the efficiency of the caching scheme largely affects the performance of the network. In this context, a novel content placement scheme is proposed that considers node degree centrality and content provider distance based on the network bandwidth parameters for effective content placement decisions. A heuristic approach has been proposed that investigates the compound effect of these parameters to minimize average delay and network traffic during retrieval of the requested content. The proposed caching scheme has been implemented on the Abilene network topology and evaluated for different content access patterns and caching capacities. Extensive simulation results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed scheme on the existing peer schemes for various performance parameters such as average network hop-count, delay, and network traffic load.

Graphic abstract

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7

Data availability

The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.


  1. 1.

    Amadeo, M., Campolo, C., Molinaro, A., Ruggeri, G.: Content-centric wireless networking: a survey. Comput. Netw. 72, 1–13 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Handley, M.: Why the internet only just works. BT Technol. J. 24(3), 119–129 (2006)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Tiwari, R., Kumar, N.: Minimizing query delay using co-operation in ivanet. Procedia Comput. Sci. 57, 84–90 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Tiwari, R., Kumar, N.: An adaptive cache invalidation technique for wireless environments. Telecommun. Syst. 62(1), 149–165 (2016)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Pourghebleh, B., Hayyolalam, V.: A comprehensive and systematic review of the load balancing mechanisms in the internet of things. Clust. Comput. 1–21 (2019)

  6. 6.

    Tiwari, R., Kumar, N.: A novel hybrid approach for web caching. In: 2012 Sixth International Conference on Innovative Mobile and Internet Services in Ubiquitous Computing, pp. 512–517. IEEE (2012)

  7. 7.

    Tiwari, R., Kumar, N.: Cooperative gateway cache invalidation scheme for internet-based vehicular ad hoc networks. Wirel. Pers. Commun. 85(4), 1789–1814 (2015)

    MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Ahmed, S.H., Bouk, S.H., Kim, D.: Content-Centric Networks: An Overview, Applications and Research Challenges. Springer, New York (2016)

    Book  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Qiao, X., Wang, H., Tan, W., Vasilakos, A.V., Chen, J., Blake, M.B.: A survey of applications research on content-centric networking. China Commun. 16(9), 122–140 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Vasilakos, A.V., Li, Z., Simon, G., You, W.: Information centric network: research challenges and opportunities. J. Netw. Comput. Appl. 52, 1–10 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Jacobson, V., Mosko, M., Smetters, D., Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J.: Content-Centric Networking, Whitepaper Describing Future Assurable Global Networks, pp. 1–9. Palo Alto Research Center, Palo Alto (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Kumar, S., Tiwari, R., Obaidat, M.S., Kumar, N., Hsiao, K.F.: Cpndd: content placement approach in content centric networking. In: ICC 2020-2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), pp. 1–6. IEEE (2020)

  13. 13.

    Aboud, A., Touati, H., Hnich, B.: Efficient forwarding strategy in a ndn-based internet of things. Clust. Comput. 22(3), 805–818 (2019)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Jacobson, V., Smetters, D.K., Thornton, J.D., Plass, M.F., Briggs, N.H., Braynard, R.L.: Networking named content. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Emerging Networking Experiments and Technologies pp. 1–12. ACM (2009)

  15. 15.

    Khandaker, F., Oteafy, S., Hassanein, H.S., Farahat, H.: A functional taxonomy of caching schemes: towards guided designs in information-centric networks. Comput. Netw. 165, 106937 (2019)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Laoutaris, N., Che, H., Stavrakakis, I.: The lcd interconnection of lru caches and its analysis. Perform. Eval. 63(7), 609–634 (2006)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Arianfar, S., Nikander, P., Ott, J.: On content-centric router design and implications. In: Proceedings of the Re-Architecting the Internet Workshop, p. 5. ACM (2010)

  18. 18.

    Psaras, I., Chai, W.K., Pavlou, G.: Probabilistic in-network caching for information-centric networks. In: Proceedings of the Second Edition of the ICN Workshop on Information-Centric Networking, pp. 55–60. ACM (2012)

  19. 19.

    Cho, K., Lee, M., Park, K., Kwon, T.T., Choi, Y., Pack, S.: Wave: popularity-based and collaborative in-network caching for content-oriented networks. In: 2012 Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM Workshops, pp. 316–321. IEE (2012)

  20. 20.

    Bernardini, C., Silverston, T., Festor, O.: Mpc: opularity-based caching strategy for content centric networks. In: 2013 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), pp. 3619–3623. IEEE (2013)

  21. 21.

    Hou, R., Zhang, L., Wu, T., Mao, T., Luo, J.: Bloom-filter-based request node collaboration caching for named data networking. Clust. Comput. 22(3), 6681–6692 (2019)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Kalghoum, A., Saidane, L.A.: Fcr-ns: a novel caching and forwarding strategy for named data networking based on software defined networking. Clust. Comput. 22(3), 981–994 (2019)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Kumar, S., Tiwari, R.: Optimized content centric networking for future internet: dynamic popularity window based caching scheme. Comput. Netw. 179, 107434 (2020).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Sourlas, V., Paschos, G.S., Flegkas, P., Tassiulas, L.: Caching in content-based publish/subscribe systems. In: GLOBECOM 2009-2009 IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, pp. 1–6. IEEE (2009)

  25. 25.

    Rossi, D., Rossini, G.: On sizing CCN content stores by exploiting topological information. In: 2012 Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM Workshops, pp. 280–285. IEEE (2012)

  26. 26.

    Naz, S., Rais, R.N.B., Qayyum, A.: Multi-attribute caching: towards efficient cache management in content-centric networks. In: 2016 13th IEEE Annual Consumer Communications & Networking Conference (CCNC), pp. 630–633. IEEE (2016)

  27. 27.

    Qazi, F., Khalid, O., Rais, R.N.B., Khan, I.A., et al.: Optimal content caching in content-centric networks. Wirel. Commun. Mob. Comput. (2019)

  28. 28.

    Kumar, S., Tiwari, R.: Dynamic popularity window and distance-based efficient caching for fast content delivery applications in CCN. Eng. Sci. Technol. Int. J. 24(3), 829–837 (2021)

    Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Kumar, S., Tiwari, R.: An efficient content placement scheme based on normalized node degree in content centric networking. Clust. Comput. 1–15. (2020)

  30. 30.

    Jaber, G., Kacimi, R.: A collaborative caching strategy for content-centric enabled wireless sensor networks. Comput. Commun. 159, 60–70 (2020).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Afanasyev, A., Shi, J., Zhang, B., Zhang, L., Moiseenko, I., Yu, Y., Shang, W., Huang, Y., Abraham, J.P., DiBenedetto, S., et al.: Nfd developer’s guide. Dept Comput Sci., Univ California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA, Tech Rep NDN-0021 (2014)

  32. 32.

    Pentikousis, K., Ohlman, B., Davies, E., Spirou, S., Boggia, G., Mahadevan, P.: Information-centric networking: evaluation methodology. Internet Draft (2015)

  33. 33.

    Hefeeda, M., Saleh, O.: Traffic modeling and proportional partial caching for peer-to-peer systems. IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 16(6), 1447–1460 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Alderson, D., Li, L., Willinger, W., Doyle, J.C.: Understanding internet topology: principles, models, and validation. IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 13(6), 1205–1218 (2005)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Rosensweig, E.J., Kurose, J., Towsley, D.: Approximate models for general cache networks. In: 2010 Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM. IEEE (2010)

  36. 36.

    Gao, Y., Zhou, J.: Probabilistic caching mechanism based on software defined content centric network. In: 2019 IEEE 11th International Conference on Communication Software and Networks (ICCSN), pp. 210–214, (2019)

  37. 37.

    Li, Y., Xie, H., Wen, Y., Chow, C.Y., Zhang, Z.L.: How much to coordinate? optimizing in-network caching in content-centric networks. IEEE Trans. Netw. Serv. Manag. 12(3), 420–434 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Afanasyev, A., Moiseenko, I., Zhang, L., et al.: ndnsim: Ndn simulator for ns-3, p. 4. University of California, Los Angeles, Tech Rep (2012)

Download references


This work was supported by FCT/MCTES through national funds and when applicable co-funded EU funds under the Project UIDB/50008/2020; by the Government of Russian Federation, Grant 08-08; and by Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development—CNPq, via Grant No. 313036/2020-9.


This work was supported by FCT/MCTES through national funds and when applicable co-funded EU funds under the Project UIDB/50008/2020; by the Government of Russian Federation, Grant 08-08; and by Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development - CNPq, via Grant No. 313036/2020-9.

Author information




SK: Conceptualization, Methodology, Software RT: Conceptualization, Idea, Data curation, Writing- Original draft preparation. SK: Visualization, Investigation. JJPCR: Writing- Reviewing and Editing.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Rajeev Tiwari.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

No such potential conflict of interest financial or non-financial.

Research invloving human and animal rights

Research doesn’t involve Human Participants and/or Animals No datasets are involved in this work.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kumar, S., Tiwari, R., Kozlov, S. et al. Minimizing delay in content-centric networks using heuristics-based in-network caching. Cluster Comput (2021).

Download citation


  • Content-centric networking
  • Content caching
  • Network performance
  • Hop count
  • Network traffic