Cluster Computing

, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp 149–161 | Cite as

Hybrid spatial air index for processing queries in road networks

  • M. VeereshaEmail author
  • M. Sugumaran


In case of road networks, for the clients to disseminate data, wireless broadcast is a scalable and secure strategy. As far as network partition index (NPI) is concerned, it doesn’t address certain problems; as to how to handle if there has been a large number of data objects in broadcast system, in the same way how to handle link errors and cache management. Hence, to address such problems, hybrid spatial air index (HSAI) an NPI based air index has been proposed wherein hybrid broadcast scheduling, adaptive XOR-based network coding and adaptive cooperative caching are effectively used for spatial queries in road networks. Experiments are conducted for evaluating query performance and HSAI is compared with state-of-the-art NPI. The experimental results show the outperformance of HSAI.


Hybrid spatial air index Network partition index Hybrid broadcast scheduling Adaptive XOR-based network coding Adaptive cooperative caching Road networks 



Not as a customary gesture but with profound academic humbleness, we are immensely thankful for going through this scholarly task and putting up reviews. All reviewers deserve our gratitude for their reviews have definitely proved helpful in enlightening us and finally we respect the comments and suggestions that encourage us to further improvise the presentation of the paper.


  1. 1.
    Zhang, D., Chow, C.-Y., Li, Q., Zhang, X., Yinlong, X.: A spatial mashup service for efficient evaluation of concurrent \(k\)-NN queries. IEEE Trans. Comput. 65(8), 2428–2442 (2016)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Li, Y., Yiu, M.L.: Route-saver: leveraging route APIs for accurate and efficient query processing at location-based services. IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng. 27(1), 235–249 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Samet, H., Sankaranarayanan, J., Alborzi, H.: Scalable network distance browsing in spatial databases. In: Proceedings of the ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management Data, pp. 43–54 (2008)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Imielinski, T., Viswanathan, S., Badrinath, B.R.: Data on air: organization and access. IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng. 9(3), 353–372 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Li, G., Zhou, Q., Li, J.: A novel scheduling algorithm for supporting periodic queries in broadcast environments. IEEE Trans. Mob. Comput. 14(12), 2419–2432 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sun, W., Qin, Y., Wu, J., Zheng, B., Zhang, Z., Yu, P., Zhang, J.: Air indexing for on-demand XML data broadcast. IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 25(6), 1371–1381 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mouratidis, K., Bakiras, S., Papadias, D.: Continuous monitoring of spatial queries in wireless broadcast environments. IEEE Trans. Mob. Comput. 8(10), 1297–1311 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zheng, B., Lee, W., Lee, K., Lee, D., Shao, M.: A distributed spatial index for error-prone wireless data broadcast. Int. J. Very Large Data Bases 18(4), 959–986 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zheng, B., Lee, W.-C., Lee, D.L.: On searching continuous \(k\)-nearest neighbors in wireless data broadcast systems. IEEE Trans. Mob. Comput. 6(7), 748–761 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hou, U.L., Zhao, H.J., Yiu, M.L., Li, Y., Gong, Z.: Towards online shortest path computation. IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng. 26(4), 1012–1025 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sun, W., Chen, C., Zheng, B., Chen, C., Liu, P.: An air index for spatial query processing in road networks. IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng. 27(2), 382–395 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kim, S., Kang, S.H.: Scheduling data broadcast: an efficient cut-off point between periodic and on-demand data. IEEE Commun. Lett. 14(12), 1176–1178 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hambrusch, S., Liu. C., Aref, W., Prabhakar, S.: Query processing in broadcasted spatial index trees. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Advances in Spatial and Temporal Databases, pp. 502–521 (2001)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Xu, J., Zheng, B., Lee, W.-C., Lee, D.L.: Energy efficient index for querying location-dependent data in mobile broadcast environments. In: Proceedings of the 19th IEEE International Conference on Data Engineering, pp. 239–250 (2003)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zheng, B., Jianliang, X., Lee, W.-C., Lee, D.L.: Grid-partition index: a hybrid method for nearest-neighbor queries in wireless location-based services. Int. J. Very Large Data Bases 15, 21–39 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zheng, B., Lee, W.-C., Lee, D.L.: Spatial queries in wireless broadcast systems. Wirel. Netw. 10(6), 723–736 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kellaris, G., Mouratidis, K.: Shortest path computation on air indexes. Proc. VLDB Endow. 3(1–2), 747–757 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jing, Y., Chen, C., Sun, W., Zheng, B., Liu, L., Tu, C.: Energy-efficient shortest path query processing on air. In: Proceedings of the 19th ACM SIGSPATIAL International Conference on Advances in Geographic Information Systems, pp. 393–396 (2001)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yin, L., Cao, G., Cai, Y.: A generalized target-driven cache replacement policy for mobile environments. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Applications and the Internet, pp. 14–21 (2003)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ren, Q., Dunham, M.H.: Using semantic caching to manage location dependent data in mobile computing. In: Proceedings of the 6th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, pp. 210–221 (2000)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zheng, B., Xu, J., Lee, D.: Cache invalidation and replacement strategies for location-dependent data in mobile environments. IEEE Trans. Comput. 51(10), 1141–1153 (2002)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dar, S., Franklin, M.J., Jonsson B.T., Srivastava, D., Dar, M.T.: Semantic data caching and replacement. In: Proceedings of the 22nd VLDB Conference, pp. 330–341 (1996)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lai, K.Y., Tari, Z., Bertok, P.: Mobility-aware cache replacement for users of location-dependent services. In: Proceedings of the 29th Annual IEEE International Conference on Local Computer Networks, pp. 50–58 (2004)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Joy, P.T., Jacob, P.K.: A comparative study of cache replacement policies in wireless mobile networks. Proc. Int. Symp. Adv. Comput. Inf. Technol. 1, 609–619 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Peng, W.-C., Chen, M.-S.: Design and performance studies of an adaptive cache retrieval scheme in a mobile computing environment. IEEE Trans. Mob. Comput. 4(1), 29–40 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Peng, W.-C., Chen, M.-S.: Shared data allocation in a mobile computing system: exploring local and global optimization. IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 16(4), 374–384 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Yin, L., Cao, G.: Supporting cooperative caching in ad hoc networks. IEEE Trans. Mob. Comput. 5(1), 77–89 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zhu, Q., Lee, D.L., Lee, W.-C.: Collaborative caching for spatial queries in Mobile P2P Networks. In: Proceedings of the 27th IEEE International Conference on Data Engineering, pp. 279–290 (2011)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ahlswede, R., Cai, N., Li, S.-Y.R., Yeung, R.W.: Network information flow. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 46(4), 1204–1216 (2000)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Marden, J.R., Effros, M.: The price of selfishness in network coding. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory. 58(4), 2349–2361 (2012)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sagduyu, Y.E., Ephremides, A.: Cross-layer optimization of MAC and network coding in wireless queuing tandem networks. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory. 54(2), 554–571 (2008)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Seferoglu, H., Markopoulou, A., Kozat, U.: Network coding-aware rate control and scheduling in wireless networks. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo, pp. 1496–1499 (2009)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Birk, Y., Kol, T.: Coding on demand by an informed source (ISCOD) for efficient broadcast of different supplemental data to caching clients. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52(6), 2825–2830 (2006)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lubetzky, E., Stav, U.: Nonlinear index coding outperforming the linear optimum. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 55(8), 3544–3551 (2009)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Asad, R.M., Chaudhry, A.S.: Efficient algorithms for index coding. In: Proceedings of the IEEE INFOCOM Workshops, pp. 1-4 (2008)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sadeghi, P., Shams, R., Traskov, D.: An optimal adaptive network coding scheme for minimizing decoding delay in broadcast erasure channels. EURASIP J. Wirel. Commun. Netw. 2010, 1–14 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chu, C.-H., Yang, D.-N., Chen, M.-S.: Multi-data delivery based on network coding in on-demand broadcast. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Mobile Data Management, pp. 181–188 (2008)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zhan, C., Lee, V.C.S., Wang, J., Xu, Y.: Coding-based data broadcast scheduling in on-demand broadcast. IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun. 10(11), 3774–3783 (2011)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Cho, H.-J., Chung, C.-W.: An efficient and scalable approach to CNN queries in a road network. In: Proceedings of the 31st International Conference on Very Large Data Bases, pp. 865–876 (2005)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kolahdouzan, M.R., Shahabi, C.: Continuous \(k\)-nearest neighbor queries in spatial network databases. In: Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Spatio-Temporal Database Management, pp. 33–40 (2004)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Li, F., Cheng, D., Hadjieleftheriou, M., Kollios, G., Teng, S.-H.: On trip planning queries in spatial databases. In: Proceeding of the 9th International Symposium on Advances in Spatial Temporal Databases, pp. 923–940 (2005)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringPondicherry Engineering CollegePuducherryIndia

Personalised recommendations