Given its current development trajectory, the complexity of cloud computing ecosystems are evolving to where traditional resource management strategies will struggle to remain fit for purpose. These strategies have to cope with ever-increasing numbers of heterogeneous resources, a proliferation of new services, and a growing user-base with diverse and specialized requirements. This growth not only significantly increases the number of parameters needed to make good decisions, it increases the time needed to take these decisions. Consequently, traditional resource management systems are increasingly prone to poor decisions making. Devolving resources management decisions to the local environment of that resource can dramatically increase the speed of decisions making; moreover, the cost of gathering global information can thus be eliminated; saving communication costs. Experimental data, provided in this paper, illustrate that extant cloud deployments can be used as effective vehicles for devolved decision making. This finding strengthens the case for the proposed paradigm shift, since it does not require a change to the architecture of existing cloud systems. This shift would result in systems in which resources decide for themselves how best they can be used. This paper takes this idea to its logical conclusion and proposes a system for supporting self-managing resources in cloud environments. It introduces the concept of coalitions, consisting of collaborating resources, formed for the purpose of service delivery. It suggests the utility of restricting the interactions between the end-user and the cloud service provider to a well-defined services interface. It shows how clouds can be considered functionally, as engines for delivering an appropriate set of resources in response to service requests. And finally, since modern applications are increasingly constructed from sophisticated workflows of complex components, it shows how combinatorial auctions can be used to effectively deliver packages of resources to support those workflows.
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The work reported in this paper was partially supported by NSF CCR Grant 1525943 “Is the Simulation of Quantum Many-Body Systems Feasible on the Cloud?” to Dan C. Marinescu and collaborators and by a Grant from the EU H2020 program to J. P. Morrison for the CloudLightning consortium.
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Marinescu, D.C., Paya, A., Morrison, J.P. et al. An approach for scaling cloud resource management. Cluster Comput 20, 909–924 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10586-016-0700-8
- Computer clouds
- Coalition formation
- Combinatorial auctions