Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Efficient push-based packet scheduling for Peer-to-Peer live streaming

  • 313 Accesses

  • 2 Citations

Abstract

Content scheduling is a key component of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks. The problem is how to schedule the content delivery to the children peers with multiple parents to improve the overall performance of the systems. The challenge is to design a scheme with low delay and low bandwidth utilization. Most of recent works propose pull-based schemes, whose processes for periodically advertising and requesting on per-packet basic lead to long delay. However, long playback delay is undesirable for live streaming and TV shows. In this paper, we formulate the scheduling problems as to minimize the playback delay due to scheduling. To solve the problem and address the packet redundancy and disorder packet arrival issues, we propose a novel push-based scheme. In our scheme, parents push packets to their children in a given interval pattern as soon as the packets are received, and children feed back network condition changes with an interval pattern when necessary. The scheme eliminates the processes of buffer advertising and packet requesting, and reduces control traffic, delivery delay and playback delay much more than the pull-based schemes. We provide an efficient scheduling algorithm and its implementation for simulation. The simulation results show that our scheme outperforms other pull-based schemes significantly.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

References

  1. 1.

    Liao, X., Jin, H., Liu, Y., Ni, L.M., Deng, D.: Anysee: peer-to-peer live streaming. In: Proc. of IEEE Infocom (2006)

  2. 2.

    Jin, X., Cheng, K.-L., Chan, S.-H.G.: SIM: scalable island multicast for peer-to-peer media streaming. In: Proc. of IEEE International Conference on Multimedia Expo (ICME), Toronto, Canada, July 2006, pp. 913–916 (2006)

  3. 3.

    Yiu, W.-P.K., Jin, X., Chan, S.-H.G.: Challenges and approaches in large-scale peer-to-peer media streaming. IEEE Multimed. 14(2), 50–59 (2007)

  4. 4.

    Zhang, X., Liu, J., Li, B., Yum, T.-S.P.: CoolStreaming/DONet: a data-driven overlay network for live media streaming. In: Proc. of IEEE INFOCOM, Miami, FL, USA, March 2005, pp. 2102–2111 (2005)

  5. 5.

    Zhang, M., Xiong, Y., Zhang, Q.: On the optimal scheduling for media streaming in data-driven overlay networks. In: Proc. of IEEE GLOBECOM, New York, November 2006

  6. 6.

    Pai, V., Kumar, K., Tamilmani, K., Sambamurthy, V., Mohr, A.E.: Chainsaw: eliminating trees from overlay multicast. In: IEEE Infocom, Conell, US, February 2005

  7. 7.

    Agarwal, V., Rejaie, R.: Adaptive multi-source streaming in heterogeneous peer-to-peer networks. In: Multimedia Computing and Networking (MMCN), San Jose, CA, USA, January 2005

  8. 8.

    Wanga, Y., Nakao, A., Vasilakos, A.V., Ma, J.: P2P soft security: on evolutionary dynamics of P2P incentive mechanism. Comput. Commun. 34(3), 241–249 (2011)

  9. 9.

    Zhou, L., Chao, H.-C., Vasilakos, A.V.: Joint forensics-scheduling strategy for delay-sensitive multimedia applications over heterogeneous networks. IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 29(7), 1358–1367 (2011)

  10. 10.

    Shen, Z., Luo, J., Zimmermann, R., Vasilakos, A.V.: Peer-to-Peer Media Streaming: Insights and New Developments. Proc. IEEE 99(12), 2089–2109 (2011)

  11. 11.

    Zhou, L., Zhang, Y., Song, K., Jing, W., Vasilakos, A.V.: Distributed media services in P2P-based vehicular networks. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 60(2), 692–703 (2011)

  12. 12.

    Wah Yim, A.K., Buyya, R.: Decentralized media streaming infrastructure (demsi): an adaptive and high-performance peer-to-peer content delivery network. J. Syst. Archit. 52(12), 737–772 (2006)

  13. 13.

    Cai, Y., Natarajan, A., Wong, J.: On scheduling of peer-to-peer video services. IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 25(1), 140–145 (2007)

  14. 14.

    Wei, C., Kai, S., Sen, S., Fangchun, Y.: A heuristic chunk scheduling algorithm reducing delay for mesh-pull P2P live streaming. In: 2nd IEEE International Conference on Broadband Network and Multimedia Technology, pp. 706–710 (2009)

  15. 15.

    Ouali, A., Kerherve, B., Jaumard, B.: Toward improving scheduling strategies in pull-based live P2P streaming systems. In: 6th IEEE Consumer Communications and Networking Conference (CCNC), pp. 1–5 (2009)

  16. 16.

    Yao, J., Bhuyan, L.: “Distributed packet processing in P2P networks. In: IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM), pp. 142–147 (2005)

  17. 17.

    Kim, E., Liu, J.C.L.: Design of hd-quality streaming networks for real-time content distribution. IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 52(2), 392–401 (2006)

  18. 18.

    Castro, M., Druschel, P., Kermarrec, A.-M., Nandi, A., Rowstron, A., Singh, A.: SplitStream: high-bandwidth multicast in cooperative environments. In: Proceedings of the 19th ACM Symposium on Operating Systems Principles, The Sagamore, Bolton Landing, Lake George, New York, Oct. 2003, pp. 298–313 (2003)

  19. 19.

    Venkataraman, V., Yoshida, K., Francis, P.: Chunkyspread: heterogeneous unstructured tree-based peer-to-peer multicast. In: Proceedings of the 2006 14th IEEE International Conference on Network Protocols, pp. 2–11 (2006)

  20. 20.

    Luo, J.: Practical algorithm for minimum delay peer-to-peer media streaming. In: 2010 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME), pp. 986–991 (2010)

  21. 21.

    Ouali, A., Kerhervé, B., Jaumard, B.: A packet-loss resilient push scheduling for mesh overlays. In: 2011 IEEE Consumer Communications and Networking Conference (CCNC), pp. 611–615 (2011)

  22. 22.

    Wang, M., Li, B.: R2: random push with random network coding in live peer-to-peer streaming. IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 25(9), 1655–1666 (2007)

  23. 23.

    Bracciale, L., Lo Piccolo, F., Luzzi, D., Salsano, S., Bianchi, G., Blefari-Melazzi, N.: A push-based scheduling algorithm for large scale P2P live streaming. In: 2008 4th International Telecommunication Networking Workshop on QoS in Multiservice IP Networks, pp. 1–7 (2008)

  24. 24.

    Cui, L., Jiang, Y., Wu, J.: Optimizing push scheduling algorithm based on network coding for mesh peer-to-peer live streaming. In: 2012 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), pp. 2075–2080 (2012)

  25. 25.

    Li, Z., Yu, Y., Hei, X., Tsang, D.H.-K.: A unified framework for sub-stream scheduling in P2P hybrid streaming systems and how to do better? In: Proc. of NETWORKING, pp. 728–741 (2009)

  26. 26.

    Alghazawy, B.A., Fujiata, S.: Probabilistic packet scheduling scheme for hybrid pull-push P2P live streaming protocols. In: 2011 Second International Conference on Networking and Computing, pp. 248–251 (2011)

  27. 27.

    Zhang, M., Zhang, Q., Sun, L., Yang, S.: Understanding the power of pull-based streaming protocol: can we do better? IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 25(9), 1678–1694 (2007)

  28. 28.

    Bui, H., Lan, T., Nguyen, H.S.: A low-delay push-pull based application layer multicast for P2P live video streaming. In: 2011 Third International Conference on Knowledge and Systems Engineering, pp. 104–111 (2011)

  29. 29.

    Keong, C.Y., Hoong, P.K,, Ting, C.-Y.: Efficient hybrid push-pull based P2P media streaming system. In: 2011 IEEE 17th International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Systems, pp. 735–740 (2011)

  30. 30.

    Zheng, G., Chan, S.-H.G., Luo, X., Begen, A.C.: Pattern-push: a low-delay mesh-push scheduling for live peer-to-peer streaming. In: Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on Multimedia and Expo (ICME), New York, 28 June–3 July 2009, pp. 1158–1161 (2009)

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Guifeng Zheng.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Liu, N., Yang, J., Cui, H. et al. Efficient push-based packet scheduling for Peer-to-Peer live streaming. Cluster Comput 16, 767–777 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10586-013-0268-5

Download citation

Keywords

  • Peer-to-Peer
  • Live streaming
  • Playback delay
  • Push-based scheme
  • Packet scheduling algorithm