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Table 1 Description of study sites

From: Indigenous knowledge for seasonal weather and climate forecasting across East Africa

Site Rainfall Farming system Main crops and livestock Weather and resource constraints
Borana, southern Ethiopia Semi-arid, bimodal rainfall patterns (500–600 mm per year) with distribution peaks in March–May and September–November Agro-pastoral/pastoral, pockets of rainfed farming; semi-arid lowlands of southern Ethiopia Maize, beans, wheat; beef cattle, goats Water stress and frequent droughts
Hoima, southwest Uganda Average rainfall of 1400 mm per year, with bimodal peaks in April to May and August to November Highland agroforestry, mid-hill coffee/tea, and small-scale mixed farming/commercial to dry land small-scale agriculture/agro pastoralism along Lake Albert Cassava, beans, sweet potato; chicken, and pigs Soil erosion and declining soil fertility
Rakai, southern Uganda Steep rainfall gradient, high (> 1400 mm) along Lake Victoria, rapidly declining to low in Western Rakai and Isingiro (< 1000 mm) Rainfed annual smallholder farming systems along lake, mid-hill perennial mixed coffee agro-forestry in Rakai, large areas of highly vulnerable smallholder agro-pastoralism in western half of Rakai and Isingiro Bananas, beans, maize; chickens, goats Heavy deforestation (charcoal, firewood), reduced =river flow and water stress
Lushoto, northeastern Tanzania Mid-altitude ecology, bimodal rainfall patterns (1200–1300 mm per year) with wet seasons in March, April and May (MAM) and October,November and December (OND) Diverse micro eco-zones within relatively small areas; mixed crop-livestock, intensive farming systems in higher elevation and agro-pastoral farming systems in lower elevation Maize, beans, tomatoes; chickens, dairy cattle Part of the Eastern Arc Mountains of East Africa and global hotspot for biodiversity
  1. Sources: Desta et al. 2011; Kyazze and Kristjanson 2011; Lyamchai et al. 2011; Mubiru and Kristjanson 2012