Managing urban water systems with significant adaptation deficitsunified framework for secondary cities: part I—conceptual framework

Abstract

The lack of resilience of urban systems to weather and climate variability—termed type I adaptation—and also to climate change—type II adaptation—are both major challenges to the livability and sustainability of cities in the Global South. However, there is often competition and conflict in these cities between actions that address existing adaptation deficits (type I) and projected adaptation gaps (type II). Extending the concept of the environmental Kuznets curve, this paper argues that synergistic action on type I and type II adaptation is essential in order for these cities to maintain their livability and build resilience to climate variability and climate change in the face of growing urban populations. A proposed unifying framework has been demonstrated in Can Tho, Vietnam, where there are significant adaptation deficits due to rapid urbanization and adaptation gaps due to climate change and socioeconomic changes. The analysis in Can Tho reveals the lack of integration between type I and type II measures that could be overcome by closer integration between various stakeholders in terms of planning, prioritizing, and implementing adaptation measures.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

Notes

  1. 1.

    MOVE Framework is a vulnerability assessment framework based on system theory. This framework aims at holistic assessment of various dimensions of vulnerability such as social, economic, environmental, and institutional vulnerability.

References

  1. Adger WN, Dessai S, Goulden M, Hulme M, Lorenzoni I, Nelson DR, Naess LO, Wolf J, Wreford A (2009) Are there social limits to adaptation to climate change? Clim Chang 93(3):335–354

  2. Angel S (2012) Planet of cities. Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  3. Bennett (1985) Urban air pollution worldwide. Environmental Science Technology 19:298–304

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Birkmann J, Garschagen M, Van Tuan V, Binh N (2012) Vulnerability, coping and adaptation to water related hazards in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta. In: Renaud FG, Kuenzer C (eds) The Mekong Delta system. Springer environmental science and engineering. Springer, Amsterdam, pp 245–289. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-3962-8_10

  5. Brown K (2011) Sustainable adaptation: an oxymoron? Climate and Development 3:21–31. doi:10.3763/cdev.2010.0062

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Burton I (2004) Climate Change and Adaptation Deficit. In: Adam Fenech RBR, Don MacIver and Heather Auld (ed) International Conference on Adaptation Science, Management and Policy Options, Lijiang, Yunnan, China, May 17–19, 2004. AIRG, Meteorogical Service of Canada, Environment Canada, p 25–33

  7. Buuren A, Driessen P, Teisman G, Rijswick M (2013) Toward legitimate governance strategies for climate adaptation in the Netherlands: combining insights from a legal, planning, and network perspective. Reg Environ Chang 14:1021–1033. doi:10.1007/s10113-013-0448-0

    Google Scholar 

  8. Chu TH, Diana S, Le TA (2014) Irrigation development in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta: towards polycentric water governance? International Journal of Water Governance 02:61–82. doi:10.7564/14-IJWG59

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Clemens M, Rijke J, Pathirana A, Quan NH (2014) Effective stakeholder analysis for urban flood resilience in Vietnam using design proposition. Paper presented at the 13 th International Conference on Urban Drainage, Sarawak, Malaysia, 7–12 September 2014

  10. Deltacommissaris (2014) Delta Prgramme 2015: working on the Dutch Delta in the 21st century : a new phase in the battle against the water. The Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment, The Ministry of Economic Afffairs, The Hague

    Google Scholar 

  11. Digman CJ, Horton B, Ashley RM, Gill E (2016) BeST (Benefits of SuDS Tool) User Manual. W045d, vol RP993. CIRIA, Griffin Court, 15 Long Lane, London, EC1A 9PN, UK

  12. Ekins P (1997) The Kuznets curve for the environment and economic growth: examining the evidence. Environment and Planning A 29:805–830. doi:10.1068/a290805

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Garschagen M (2014) Risky change? Vulnerability and adaptation between climate change and transformation dynamics in Can Tho City, Vietnam vol 15. Megacities and global change. Steiner, Stuttgart

    Google Scholar 

  14. GoI (2008) National Action plan on Climate change Government of India New Delhi

  15. Grossman GM, Krueger AB (1991) Environmental impacts of a North American free trade agreement. National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge. doi:10.3386/w3914

    Book  Google Scholar 

  16. Haasnoot M, Kwakkel JH, Walker WE, ter Maat J (2013) Dynamic adaptive policy pathways: a method for crafting robust decisions for a deeply uncertain world. Glob Environ Chang 23:485–498. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2012.12.006

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Huong H, Pathirana A (2013) Urbanization and climate change impacts on future urban flood risk in Can Tho city, Vietnam. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci Discuss 17:379–394. doi:10.5194/hess-17-379-2013

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. IPCC (2007) Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change, 2007. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  19. Kuznets S (1955) Economic growth and income inequality. Am Econ Rev 45:1–28

    Google Scholar 

  20. MDP (2013) Mekong Delta Plan - Long-term vision and strategy for a safe, prosperous and sustainable delta. Ministry of Natural Rescources and Environment - Vietnam, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development - Vietnam, Kingdom of Netherlands, Consortium of Royal HaskoningDHV, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Deltares, Rebel, Water.nl, Amersfoot, Nertherlands

  21. Noble IR, Huq S, Anokhin YA, Carmin J, Goudou D, Lansigan FP, Osman-Elasha B, Villamizar A (2014) Adaptation needs and options. In: Field CB, Barros VR, Dokken DJ, Mach KJ, Mastrandrea MD, Bilir TE, Chatterjee M, Ebi KL, Estrada YO, Genova RC, Girma B, Kissel ES, Levy AN, MacCracken S, Mastrandrea PR, White LL (eds) Climate Change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part A: global and sectoral aspects. Contribution of working group II to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 833–868

  22. O’Neill BC, Kriegler E, Riahi K, Ebi KL, Hallegatte S, Carter TR, Mathur R, van Vuuren DP (2014) A new scenario framework for climate change research: the concept of shared socioeconomic pathways. Clim Chang 122(3):387–400

  23. PC-CanTho (2014) Can Tho climate change acivities stratergy in the period 2015–2030. People's Committee Can Tho, Can Tho

    Google Scholar 

  24. Pielke R Jr (1999) Nine fallacies of floods. Clim Chang 42:413–438. doi:10.1023/a:1005457318876

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Pillai P, Philips BR, Shyamsundar P, Ahmed K, Wang L (2010) Climate risks and adaptation in Asian coastal megacities : a synthesis report. World Bank, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  26. PM (2011) Decision 2139/QD-TTg dated 5 December 5th, 2011 of the Prime Minister (PM) approving “NATIONAL CLIMATE CHANGE STRATEGY”. Prime Ministers Office, Hanoi

    Google Scholar 

  27. PM (2013) Decision 567, 568 dated 14 September 2013 of the Prime Minister (PM) approving socio economic development plan of Can Tho city till 2020 and vision 2030. Prime Ministers Office, Ha Noi

    Google Scholar 

  28. Preston B, Westaway R, Yuen E (2011) Climate adaptation planning in practice: an evaluation of adaptation plans from three developed nations. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Change 16:407–438. doi:10.1007/s11027-010-9270-x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Quan NH, Phi HL, Tran PG, Radhakrishnan M, Quang CNX, Thuyen LX, Vinh KQ (2014) Urban retention basin in developing city: from theoretical effectiveness to practical feasibility. Paper presented at the 13th International Conference on Urban Drainage, Kuching, Malaysia

  30. Radhakrishnan M, Quan NH, Gersonius B, Pathirana A, Vinh KQ, Ashley MR, Zevenbergen C (Under Review) Coping capacities for improving adaptation pathways for flood protection in Can Tho, Vietnam. Clim Chang

  31. Revi A, Satterthwaite DE, Aragón-Durand F, Corfee-Morlot J, Kiunsi RBR, Pelling M, Roberts DC, Solecki W (2014) Urban areas. In: Field CB, Barros VR, Dokken DJ, Mach KJ, Mastrandrea MD, Bilir TE, Chatterjee M, Ebi KL, Estrada YO, Genova RC, Girma B, Kissel ES, Levy AN, MacCracken S, Mastrandrea PR, White LL (eds) Climate Change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part A: global and sectoral aspects. Contribution of working group II to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 535–612

  32. Roberts BH (2014) Managing systems of secondary cities—policy responses in international development. City Alliance / UNOPS, Brussels

    Google Scholar 

  33. Rothman D, Romero-Lankao P, Schweizer V, Bee B (2014) Challenges to adaptation: a fundamental concept for the shared socio-economic pathways and beyond. Clim Chang 122:495–507. doi:10.1007/s10584-013-0907-0

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Samoli E, Atkinson RW, Analitis A, Fuller GW, Green DC, Mudway I, Anderson HR, Kelly FJ (2016) Associations of short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution with cardiovascular and respiratory hospital admissions in London, UK. Occupational and environmental medicine. doi:10.1136/oemed-2015-103136

  35. SCE (2013) Can Tho (Vietnam): comprehensive resilience planning for integrated flood risk mangement - final report. WorldBank

  36. Serrao-Neumann S, Crick F, Harman B, Schuch G, Choy DL (2015) Maximising synergies between disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation: potential enablers for improved planning outcomes. Environ Sci Pol 50:46–61. doi:10.1016/j.envsci.2015.01.017

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. SIWRP (2011) The flood protection plan for Can Tho city. Southern Institute for Water Resources Planning (SIWRP), Ho Chi Minh City

    Google Scholar 

  38. Tanner T, Mitchell T, Polack E, Guenther B (2009) Urban governance for adaptation: assessing climate change resilience in ten Asian cities. IDS Working Papers 2009:01–47. doi:10.1111/j.2040-0209.2009.00315_2.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Tessler ZD, Vörösmarty CJ, Grossberg M, Gladkova I, Aizenman H, Syvitski JPM, Foufoula-Georgiou E (2015) Profiling risk and sustainability in coastal deltas of the world. Science 349:638–643. doi:10.1126/science.aab3574

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Tobin GA (1995) The levee love affair: a stormy relationship?1. JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association 31:359–367. doi:10.1111/j.1752-1688.1995.tb04025.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. UNDESA (2013) Sustainable development challenges. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations, New York

    Google Scholar 

  42. UNEP (2014) The adaptation gap report 2014. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Nairobi

    Google Scholar 

  43. UN-HABITAT (2007) Global report on human settlements 2007: enhancing urban safety and security. UN-Habitat, London

    Google Scholar 

  44. USAID (2013) Sustainable service delivery in an increasingly urbanised world. USAID, Washington DC

    Google Scholar 

  45. VIAP-SUIP (2013) Master Plan of Can Tho city until 2030 and Vision to 2050 Southern Sub-Institute of Urban and Rural Planning (VIAP-SIUP), Ha Noi

  46. WorldBank (2010a) The costs to developing countries of adapting to climate change: new methods and estimates. World Bank, Washington

    Google Scholar 

  47. WorldBank (2010b) Development and climate change. World Bank, Washington DC

    Google Scholar 

  48. WorldBank (2014) Can Tho, Vietnam enhancing urban resilience: cities strength—resilient cities program. The World Bank Group, Washington

    Google Scholar 

  49. Young K, Hall JW (2015) Introducing system interdependency into infrastructure appraisal: from projects to portfolios to pathways. Infrastructure Complexity 2:1–18. doi:10.1186/s40551-015-0005-8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Zevenbergen C, Rijke J, van Herk S, Bloemen P (2015a) Room for the river: a stepping stone in adaptive delta management. International Journal of Water 3:121–140

    Google Scholar 

  51. Zevenbergen C, van de Guchte C, Pathirana A, Wieriks K, N V (2015b) Water and delta-cities: accelerating urban resilience. Paper presented at the International Conference on Earth Observation & Societal Impacts and ICLEI Resilience Forum, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC, June 28–30

Download references

Acknowledgements

Funding is acknowledged from (1) PRoACC programme by the Netherlands Ministry of Development Cooperation (DGIS) and (2) Cooperative Research Centre for Water Sensitive Cities (CRC), an initiative of the Australian government. Prof. Richard Ashley is acknowledged for his editorial contribution at the revision stage of this article.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Assela Pathirana.

Additional information

This article is part of a Special Issue on “Climatic Change and Development in the Mekong River Basin” edited by Jaap Evers and Assela Pathirana.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Pathirana, A., Radhakrishnan, M., Quan, N.H. et al. Managing urban water systems with significant adaptation deficitsunified framework for secondary cities: part I—conceptual framework. Climatic Change 149, 43–56 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-017-1953-9

Download citation