Climatic Change

, Volume 138, Issue 1–2, pp 99–110 | Cite as

Future hurricane storm surge risk for the U.S. gulf and Florida coasts based on projections of thermodynamic potential intensity

Article

Abstract

Coastal populations in the global tropics and sub-tropics are vulnerable to the devastating impacts of hurricane storm surge and this risk is only expected to rise under climate change. In this study, we address this issue for the U.S. Gulf and Florida coasts. Using the framework of Potential Intensity, observations and output from coupled climate models, we show that the future large-scale thermodynamic environment may become more favorable for hurricane intensification. Under the RCP 4.5 emissions scenario and for the peak hurricane season months of August–October, we show that the mean intensities of Atlantic hurricanes may increase by 1.8–4.2 % and their lifetime maximum intensities may increase by 2.7–5.3 % when comparing the last two decades of the 20th and 21st centuries. We then combine our estimates of hurricane intensity changes with projections of sea-level rise to understand their relative impacts on future storm surge using simulations with the National Weather Service’s SLOSH (Sea, Lake, and Overland Surges from Hurricanes) model for five historical hurricanes that made landfall in the Gulf of Mexico and Florida. Considering uncertainty in hurricane intensity changes and sea-level rise, our results indicate a median increase in storm surge ranging between 25 and 47 %, with changes in hurricane intensity increasing future storm surge by about 10 % relative to the increase that may result from sea level rise alone, with highly non-linear response of population at risk.

Supplementary material

10584_2016_1728_MOESM1_ESM.docx (36 kb)
Supplementary Figure 1(DOCX 35 kb)
10584_2016_1728_MOESM2_ESM.docx (14 kb)
Supplementary Table 1(DOCX 14 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karthik Balaguru
    • 1
  • David R. Judi
    • 2
  • L. Ruby Leung
    • 3
  1. 1.Marine Sciences LaboratoryPacific Northwest National LaboratorySeattleUSA
  2. 2.Operational Safeguards and LogisticsPacific Northwest National LaboratoryRichlandUSA
  3. 3.Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change DivisionPacific Northwest National LaboratoryRichlandUSA

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