Advertisement

Climatic Change

, Volume 131, Issue 2, pp 273–285 | Cite as

El Niño-southern oscillation and cassava production in Tanzania and Brazil

  • O. S. A. OluwoleEmail author
Article

Abstract

Konzo epidemics occur during droughts in East, Central, and Southern Africa, where the population depends almost exclusively on poorly processed cassava. Warm phases of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific decadal Oscillation (PDO) are associated with droughts in these areas of Africa, but with increase rainfall in South America. To further understanding of the relationship of droughts, cassava production, and konzo epidemics, this study was done to determine if there is coherence of spectra of ENSO, PDO and cassava production. Annual time series of cassava production in Tanzania and Brazil, multivariate ENSO index (MEI), and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation index (PDO) from 1961–2013 were compared. Wavelet and cross wavelet analyses of cassava production, ENSO, and PDO were performed. Warm phases of ENSO and PDO were associated with high cassava production in Tanzania, but with low cassava production in Brazil. Spectrogram of cassava showed significantly high production at periodicities of 3–9 years in Tanzania, but with significantly low production at periodicities of 2–6 years in Brazil. Cross wavelet spectrograms showed coherence of cassava production, ENSO and PDO in Tanzania and Brazil. Time-varying cyclical cassava production in Tanzania and Brazil are coupled to ENSO and PDO modes. Occurrence of droughts, high cassava production, and konzo epidemics in Tanzania are attributable to the impact of climate variability, which should be the focus of public health policies to control konzo epidemics.

Keywords

Cassava Pacific Decadal Oscillation Warm Phasis Cold Phasis Cassava Root 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Funding and Conflict of Interest

No funding was received from private or government agencies for this study. Thus, no conflict of interest exists.

References

  1. Banea M, Poulter NH, Rosling H (1992) Shortcuts in cassava processing and risk of dietary cyanide exposure in Zaire. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 14:137–143Google Scholar
  2. Bindoff NL, Willebrand J, Artale V, Cazenave A, Gregory J, Gulev S, Hanawa K, Le Quere C, Levitus S, Nojiri Y, Shum CK, Talley LD, Unnikrishnan A (2007) Observations: Oceanic Climate Change and Sea Level. In: Climate Change 2007: The physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group 1 to the Fourth Assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Ed. by S Solomon, D Qin, M Manning, Z Chen, M Marquis, KB Averyt, M Tignor, HL Miller. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK:387–432.Google Scholar
  3. Carter SE, Jones PG (1993) A model of the distribution of cassava in Africa. Applied Geography 13:353–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Caviedes CN (2007) The impacts of El Nino-southern oscillation on natural and human systems. In: Veblen TT, Young KR, Orme AR (eds) The physical geography of south america. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 305–321Google Scholar
  5. Chabwine JN, Masheka C, Balol’ebwami Z, Maheshe B, Balegamire S, Rutega B, Wa Lola M, Mutendela K, Bonnet M-J, Shangalume O, Balegamire JM, Nemery B (2011) Appearance of konzo in south-Kivu, a wartorn area in the democratic republic of Congo. Food and Chemical Toxicology 49(3):644–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Christensen JH, Kumar KK, Aldrian E, An SI, Cavalcanti IFA, de Castro M, Dong W, Goswwami P, Hall A, Kanyanga JK, Kitoh A, Kossin J, Lau NC, Renwick J, Stephenson DB, Xie SP, Zhou T, Stocker TF, Qin D (2013) Climate phenomena and their relevance for future regional climate change. In: MPl Q, Tignor DM, Allen SK, Boschung J, Nauels A, Xia Y, Bex V, Midgley PM (eds) The physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 1217–1308Google Scholar
  7. Christy JR, Clarke RA, Gruza GV, Jouzel J, Mann ME, Oerlemans J, Salinger MJ, Wang SW (2001) Observed climate variabibity and change. In: Houghton JT, Ding Y, Griggs DJ, Noguer M, van der Linden PJ, Dai X, Maskell K, Johnson CA (eds) Climate change 2001: The scientific basis. Contribution of working group 1 to the third assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 99–181Google Scholar
  8. Cliff JL (1994) Cassava safety in times of war and drought in Mozambique. Acta Horticulturae 375:373–378Google Scholar
  9. Cliff J, Nicala D, Saute F, Givragy R, Azambuja G, Taela A, Chavane L, Howarth J (1997) Konzo associated with war in Mozambique. Tropical Medicine and International Health 2(11):1068–1074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. R Core Team (2014) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria.Google Scholar
  11. de Tafur SM, El-Sharkawy MA, Calle F (1997) Photosynthesis and yield performance of cassava in seasonally dry and semiarid environments. Photosynthetica 33:249–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Du L, Bokanga M, Moller BL, Halkier BA (1995) The biosynthesis of cyanogenic glucosides in roots of cassava. Phytochemistry 39:323–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dufour DL (1994) Cassava in Amazonia: lessons in utilisation and safety from native peoples. Acta Horticulturae 375:175–182Google Scholar
  14. Ernesto M, Cardoso AP, Nicala Mirione DE, Massaza F, Cliff J, Haque M, Bradbury JH (2002) Persistent konzo and cyanogen toxicity from cassava in northern Mozambique. Acta Tropica 82:357–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Famine Early Warning Systems Network (2014) Southern Africa Special. Tech. rep. FEWS NET:1–2.Google Scholar
  16. FAO (2013) FAO Statistics. http://faostat.fao.org/
  17. Farge M (1992) Wavelet transforms and their applications to turbulence. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 24:395–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Grinsted A, Moore JC, Jevrejeva S (2004) Application of the cross wavelet transform and wavelet coherence to geophysical time series. Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics 11:561–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Task Force on Climate and Health (1999) El Nino and Heath:1–54.Google Scholar
  20. Nzwalo H (2011) The role of thiamine deficiency in konzo. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 302(1–2):129–131Google Scholar
  21. Howeler, R., Lutaladio N., Thomas G. (2013). Safe and Grow:Cassava:8–142.Google Scholar
  22. Howlett WP, Brubaker GR, Mlingi N, Rosling H (1990) Konzo, an epidemic upper motor neuron disease studied in Tanzania. Brain 113:223–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Howlett WP, Brubaker G, Mlingi N, Rosling H (1992) A geographical cluster of konzo in Tanzania. Journal Tropica Geographica Neurology 2:102–108Google Scholar
  24. IFAD, ed. (2004). Proceedings of the validation forum on the global cassava development strategy. Vol. 4: A Review of Cassava in Latin America and the Caribbean with Country Case Studies on Brazil and Colombia:1–170.Google Scholar
  25. Jones, P. D. (2004). Climate over past millenia. Reviews of Geophysics:1–42.Google Scholar
  26. Lucasse C (1952) Le “Kitondji”, synonyme le “Konzo”, une paralysie spastique. Annales de la Société Belge de Médecine Tropicale 33:393–401Google Scholar
  27. Ministry of Health Mozambique (1984) Mantakassa: an epidemic of spastic paraparesis associated with chronic cyanide intoxication in a cassava staple area in Mozambique. 1. Epidemiology and clinical and laboratory findings in patients. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 62:477–484Google Scholar
  28. Mlingi NV, Assey VD, Swai ABM, McLarty DG, Karln H, Rosling H (1993) Determinants of cyanide exposure from cassava in a konzo-affected population in northern Tanzania. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 44:137–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mlingi NLV, Nkya S, Tatala SR, Rashid S, Bradbury JH (2011) Recurrence of konzo in southern Tanzania: rehabilitation and prevention using the wetting method. Food and Chemical Toxicology 49:673–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nartey F (1968) Studies on cassava manihot utilissima Pohl-I. Cyanogenesis: the biosynthesis of linamarin and lotaustralin in etiolated seedlings. Phytochemistry 7:1307–1312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Nassar MAM, Hashimoto DYC, Fernandes SDC (2008) Wild manihot species: botanical aspects, geographic distribution and economic value. Genetics and Molecular Research 7:16–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ngudi DD, Banea-Mayambu JP, Lambein F, Kolsteren P (2011) Konzo and dietary pattern in cassava-consuming populations of popokabaka, democratic republic of Congo. Food and Chemical Toxicology 49:613–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nicholson SE, Kim J (1997) The relationship of the El Nino-southern oscillation to African rainfall. International Journal of Climatology 17:117–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Oluwole OSA (2015a) Climate Change, Seasonal Changes in Cassava Production and Konzo Epidemics. Int J Global Warming 7. http://www.inderscience.com/info/ingeneral/forthcoming.php?jcode=ijgw. In Press
  35. Oluwole OSA (2015b) Cyclical konzo epidemics and climate variability. Annals Neurol 77:371–380Google Scholar
  36. Oluwole OSA (2015c) Global Cassava Food Supply and Occurrence of Ataxic Polyneuropathy and Konzo. EJNFS 5. doi: 10.9734/EJNFS/2015/11453
  37. Oluwole OSA, Oludiran AO (2013) Geospatial association of endemicity of ataxic polyneuropathy and highly cyanogenic cassava cultivars. International Journal of Health Geographics 12:41–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Onabolu A, Bokanga M, Tylleskar T, Rosling H (2001) High cassava production and low dietary cyanide exposure in mid-west Nigeria. Public Health Nutrition 4(1):3–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Torrence C, Compo GP (1998) A Practical guide to wavelet analysis. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 79:61–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Torrence C, Webster PJ (1999) Interdecadal changes in the ENSO-monsoon system. Journal of Climate 12:2679–2690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Trolli G (1939) Konzo or epidemic spastic paralysis of the Congo. Tropical Diseases Bulletin 36:501Google Scholar
  42. Tylleskar T, Banea M, Bikangi N, Fresco L, Persson LA, Rosling H (1991) Epidemiological evidence from Zaire for a dietary etiology of konzo, an upper motor neuron disease. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 69:581–9Google Scholar
  43. Vileu AF (1942) Contribution a la discussion de la paraplegie spastique epidemique du Kwango. Annales de la Société Belge de Médecine Tropicale 22:309–317Google Scholar
  44. Wang B, Wang Y (1996) Temporal structure of the southern oscillation as revealed by waveform and wavelet analysis. Journal of Climate 9:1586–1589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wang, C., Xie S. P., Carton, J. A (2004). A global survey of ocean–atmosphere and climate variability. In: Earth Climate: The Ocean–atmosphere Interaction. Ed. by C Wang, SP Xie, JA Carton:1–19Google Scholar
  46. Wolter K, Timlin MS (1998) Measuring the strength of ENSO events: How does 1997/98 rank? Weather 53:315–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. World Health Organisation (1982) Surveillance of peripheral neuropathies. WER 57:213Google Scholar
  48. Yan H, Sun L, Wang Y, Huang W, Qiu S, Yang C (2011) A record of the southern oscillation index for the past 2,000 years from precipitation proxies. Nature Geoscience 4:611–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Neurology Unit College of MedicineUniversity of IbadanIbadanNigeria

Personalised recommendations