Climatic Change

, Volume 123, Issue 3–4, pp 597–609 | Cite as

Role of energy efficiency in climate change mitigation policy for India: assessment of co-benefits and opportunities within an integrated assessment modeling framework

Article

Abstract

Addressing the challenges of global warming requires interventions on both the energy supply and demand side. With the supply side responses being thoroughly discussed in the literature, our paper focuses on analyzing the role of end use efficiency improvements for Indian climate change mitigation policy and the associated co-benefits, within the integrated assessment modeling framework of Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). Six scenarios are analyzed here in total- one no climate policy and two climate policy cases, and within each of these one scenario with reference end use energy technology assumptions and another with advance end use energy technology assumptions has been analyzed. The paper has some important insights. Final energy demand and emissions in India are significantly reduced with energy efficiency improvements, and the role of this policy is important especially for the building and transportation sector under both reference and climate policy scenarios. Though energy efficiency policy should be an integral part of climate policy, by itself it is not sufficient for achieving mitigation targets, and a climate policy is necessary for achieving mitigation goals. There are significant co-benefits of energy efficiency improvements. Energy security for India is improved with reduced oil, coal and gas imports. Significant reduction in local pollutant gases is found which is important for local health concerns. Capital investment requirement for Indian electricity generation is reduced, more so for the climate policy scenarios, and finally there are significant savings in terms of reduced abatement cost for meeting climate change mitigation goals.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful for research support provided by the Global Technology Strategy Program. The authors acknowledge long-term support for GCAM development from the Integrated Assessment Research Program in the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated for DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute under contract DE-AC05-76RL01830. The views and opinions expressed in this paper are those of the authors alone.

Supplementary material

10584_2013_898_MOESM1_ESM.docx (202 kb)
ESM 1(DOCX 201 kb)

References

  1. Abdelaziz EA, Saidur R, Mekhilef S (2011) A review on energy saving strategies in industrial sector. Renew Sust Energ Rev 15Google Scholar
  2. Allan G, Hanley N, McGregor P, Swales K, Turner K (2007) The impact of increased efficiency in the industrial use of energy: a computable general equilibrium analysis for the United Kingdom. Energy Econ 29Google Scholar
  3. BEE (Bureau of Energy Efficiency)- www.beeindia.in accessed on 4th September 2012
  4. Brenkert AL, Kim SH, Smith AJ, Pitcher HM (2003) Model documentation for the MiniCAM. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, USA, PNNL Report-14337Google Scholar
  5. Calvin K, Fawcett A, Kejun J (2012) Comparing model results to national climate policy goals: results from the Asia modeling exercise. Energy Econ 34(Sup. 3)Google Scholar
  6. Chaturvedi V, Eom J, Clarke L, Shukla PR (2012) Long term building energy demand for India: disaggregating end use energy services in an integrated assessment modeling framework. Energy Pol In Press, doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2012.11.021
  7. Clarke L, Kyle P, Wise M, Calvin K, Edmonds J, Kim S, Placet M, Smith S (2008) CO2 emission mitigation and technological advance: an updated analysis of advance technology scenarios. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Technical Report PNNL-18075; U.S. Department of Energy: Richland, WA, USAGoogle Scholar
  8. Garg A, Shukla PR, Ghosh D, Kapshe M, Nair R (2003) Future greenhouse gas and local pollutant emissions for India: policy links and disjoints. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang 8Google Scholar
  9. Gillingham K, Newell R, Palmer K (2006) Energy efficiency policies: a retrospective examination. Annu Rev Environ Resour 31Google Scholar
  10. GoI (Government of India) (2006) Integrated energy policy. Report of the expert committee. Government of India, Planning Commission, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  11. Government of India (GoI) (2008) National action plan on climate change. Prime Minister’s Council on Climate Change, Government of IndiaGoogle Scholar
  12. Government of India (GoI) (2011) Renewable energy in India: progress, vision and strategy. Ministry of new and renewable energy, government of India. Accessed from http://www.mnre.gov.in/
  13. Halsnaes K, Shukla PR (2007) Sustainable development as a framework for developing participation in international climate change policies. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang 13(2)Google Scholar
  14. IEA (International Energy Agency) (2010) World energy outlook 2010. IEA, ParisGoogle Scholar
  15. Jain A, Sen A (2011) Natural gas in India: an analysis of policy. The Oxford Institute for Energy StudiesGoogle Scholar
  16. Kirsch FW, Medina MA (2000) Cost of industrial energy efficiency measures: its effect upon their implementation. J Energy Dev 24(1)Google Scholar
  17. Komor P, Baldwin SF, Dunkerley J (1993) Technologies for improving transport efficiency in the developing world. Transp Res A Policy Pract 27(5)Google Scholar
  18. Krey V, O’Neill B, van Ruijven B, Chaturvedi V, Daioglou V, Eom J, Jiang L, Nagai Y, Pachauri S, Ren X (2012) Urban and rural energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in Asia. Energy Econ 34(Sup 3)Google Scholar
  19. Krey, et al. (2013) Getting from here to there: technology transitions in the EMF 27 scenarios. Clim Chang, this issueGoogle Scholar
  20. Kriegler, et al. (2012) Overview of the EMF 27 study on energy system transition pathways under alternative climate policy regimes. Clim Chang, this issueGoogle Scholar
  21. Kyle P, Kim SH (2011) Long term implications of alternative light duty vehicle technologies for global greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy demands. Energy Pol 39Google Scholar
  22. Kyle GP, Kim SH, Smith SJ, Wise MA, Clarke LE (2007) The value of end use energy efficiency in mitigation of the U.S. carbon emissions. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Technical Report PNNL-17039; U.S. Department of Energy: Richland, WA, USAGoogle Scholar
  23. Liimatainen H, Stenholm P, Tapio P, McKinnon A (2012) Energy efficiency practices among road freight hauliers. Energy Pol In Press, doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2012.08.049
  24. Litman T (2005) Efficiency vehicles versus efficient transportation, comparing transportation energy conservation strategies. Transp Policy 12(2)Google Scholar
  25. Mathy S, Guivarch C (2010) Climate policies in a second best world—a case study on India. Energy Pol 38(3)Google Scholar
  26. Nakicenovic N et al (2000) Special report on emissions scenarios: a special report of working group III of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  27. Nassen J, Sprei F, Holmberg J (2008) Stagnating energy efficiency in Swedish building sector- economic and organisational explanations. Energy Pol 36Google Scholar
  28. National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency (2009) Energy efficiency as a low cost resource for achieving carbon emissions reductions. Prepared by William Prindle, ICF International, IncGoogle Scholar
  29. O’Brian K, et al. (2004) Mapping vulnerability to multiple stressors: climate change and globalization in India. Glob Environ Chang 14(4)Google Scholar
  30. Ramachandra TV, Shwetmala (2012) Decentralised carbon footprint analysis for opting climate change mitigation strategies in India. Renew Sust Energ Rev 16(8)Google Scholar
  31. Reddy BS (2003) Overcoming the energy efficiency gap in India’s household sector. Energy Pol 31Google Scholar
  32. Rohdin P, Thollander P (2006) Barriers to and driving forces for energy efficiency in the non-energy intensive manufacturing industry in Sweden. Energy 31Google Scholar
  33. Sanghi A, Mendelsohn R (2008) The impact of global warming on farmers in Brazil and India. Glob Environ Chang 18(4)Google Scholar
  34. Sathaye J, Phadke A (2006) Cost of electric power sector carbon mitigation in India: international implications. Energy Pol 34(13)Google Scholar
  35. Schleich J (2009) Barriers to energy efficiency: a comparison across the German commercial and services sector. Ecol Econ 68Google Scholar
  36. Shukla PR, Chaturvedi V (2012) Low carbon and clean energy scenarios for India: analysis of targets approach. Energy Econ 34(Sup. 3)Google Scholar
  37. Shukla PR, Chaturvedi V (2013) Sustainable energy transformations in India under climate policy. Sustain Dev 21Google Scholar
  38. Shukla PR, Dhar S, Mahapatra D (2008) Low carbon society scenarios for India. Clim Pol 8Google Scholar
  39. Sugiyama, et al. (2013) Energy efficiency potentials in global climate change mitigation: a comparison of modeling approaches. Clim Chang, this issueGoogle Scholar
  40. Trenberth KE (2012) Framing the way to relate climate extremes to climate change. Clim Chang. doi:10.1007/s10584-012-0441-5 Google Scholar
  41. Trudeau N, Tam C, Graczyk D, Taylor P (2011) Energy transition for industry: India and the global context. IEA Information Paper, International Energy Agency, ParisCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Tuominen P, Klobut K, Tolman A, Adjei A, de Best-Waldhober M (2012) Energy saving potential in buildings and overcoming market barriers in member states of the European Union. Energy Build 51Google Scholar
  43. Tzeng G-H, Chen J-J, Lan C-J (1991) The influence of modal choice on energy conservation strategies in transport: application of logit model. Energy Econ 13(4)Google Scholar
  44. Worrell E, Martin N, Price L (1999) Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emission reduction opportunities in the U.S. iron and steel sector. Ernesto Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National LaboratoryGoogle Scholar
  45. Zusman E (2008) Recognizing and rewarding co-benefits in the post 2012 climate regime: implications for developing Asia. In: Srinivasan A (ed) The climate regime beyond 2012, chapter 5. Institute for Global Environmental Studies, HayamaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© U.S. Government 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and University of MarylandCollege ParkUSA
  2. 2.Indian Institute of Management AhmedabadAhmedabadIndia

Personalised recommendations