Climatic Change

, 94:261 | Cite as

Divergence pitfalls in tree-ring research

  • Jan EsperEmail author
  • David Frank


  1. Barber V, Juday G, Finney B (2000) Reduced growth of Alaska white spruce in the twentieth century from temperature-induced drought stress. Nature 405:668–672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Böhm R, Jones PD, Hiebl J, Brunetti M, Frank D, Maugeri M (2009) The early instrumental warm-bias: a solution for long central European temperature series 1760–2007. Clim Change (in press)Google Scholar
  3. Briffa KR, Jones PD, Schweingruber FH, Karlén W, Shiyatov SG (1996) Tree-ring variables as proxy-indicators—problems with low-frequency signals. In: Jones PD et al (eds) Climatic variations and forcing mechanisms of the last 2000 years. Springer, Berlin, pp 9–41Google Scholar
  4. Briffa K, Schweingruber F, Jones P, Osborn T (1998) Reduced sensitivity of recent tree growth to temperature at high northern latitudes. Nature 391:678–682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Briffa KR, Osborn TJ, Schweingruber FH, Harris IC, Jones PD, Shiyatov SG, Vaganov EA (2001) Low frequency temperature variations from a northern tree-ring density network. J Geophys Res 106:2929–2941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brohan P, Kennedy JJ, Harris I, Tett SFB, Jones PD (2006) Uncertainty estimates in regional and global observed temperature changes: a new dataset from 1850. J Geophys Res 111. doi: 10.1029/2005JD006548 Google Scholar
  7. Büntgen U, Frank D, Wilson R, Carrer M, Urbinati C, Esper J (2008) Testing for tree-ring divergence in the European Alps. Glob Chang Biol 14:2443–2453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carrer M, Urbinati C (2001) Assessing climate-growth relationships: a comparative study between linear and non-linear methods. Dendrochronologia 19:57–65Google Scholar
  9. Cook ER, Kairiukstis LA (1990) Methods of dendrochronology—applications in the environmental science. Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  10. Cook ER, Briffa KR, Meko DM, Graybill DA, Funkhouser G (1995) The ‘segment length curse’ in long tree-ring chronology development for palaeoclimatic studies. Holocene 5:229–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cook ER, Esper J, D’Arrigo R (2004) Extra-tropical Northern Hemisphere temperature variability over the past 1000 years. Quat Sci Rev 23:2063–2074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. D’Arrigo R, Kaufmann R, Davi N, Jacoby G, Laskowski C, Myneni R, Cherubini P (2004) Thresholds for warming-induced growth decline at elevational treeline in the Yukon Territory. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 18. doi: 10.1029/2004GBO02249 Google Scholar
  13. D’Arrigo R, Wilson R, Liepert B, Cherubini P (2008) On the ‘divergence problem’ in northern forests: a review of the tree-ring evidence and possible causes. Glob Planet Change 60:289–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Della-Marta PM, Luterbacher J, von Weissenfluh H, Xoplaki E, Brunet M, Wanner H (2007) Summer heat waves over western Europe 1880–2003, their relationship to large-scale forcings and predictability. Clim Dyn 29:251–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Esper J, Cook ER, Schweingruber FH (2002) Low-frequency signals in long tree-ring chronologies and the reconstruction of past temperature variability. Science 295:2250–2253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Esper J, Cook ER, Krusic PJ, Peters K, Schweingruber FH (2003) Tests of the RCS method for preserving low-frequency variability in long tree-ring chronologies. Tree-Ring Res 59:81–98Google Scholar
  17. Esper J, Frank DC, Wilson RJS (2004) Climate reconstructions—low frequency ambition and high frequency ratification. EOS 85:113, 120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Esper J, Frank DC, Wilson RJS, Briffa KR (2005) Effect of scaling and regression on reconstructed temperature amplitude for the past millennium. Geophys Res Lett 32. doi: 10.1029/2004GL021236 Google Scholar
  19. Esper J, Krusic P, Peters K, Frank D (2008) Exploration of long-term growth changes using the tree-ring detrending program Spotty. Dendrochronologia 27:75-82. doi: 10.1016/j.dendro.2008.07.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Frank D, Büntgen U, Böhm R, Maugeri M, Esper J (2007a) Warmer early instrumental measurements versus colder reconstructed temperatures: shooting at a moving target. Quat Sci Rev 26:3298–3310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Frank DC, Esper J, Cook ER (2007b) Adjustment for proxy number and coherence in a large-scale temperature reconstruction. Geophys Res Lett 34. doi: 10.1029/2007GL030571 Google Scholar
  22. Fritts HC (1969) Bristlecone pine in the White Mountains of California; growth and ring width characteristics. Pap. Lab. Tree-Ring Res. 4, Univ. of Arizona Press, TucsonGoogle Scholar
  23. Fritts HC (1976) Tree rings and climate. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. Graumlich LJ, Brubaker LB (1986) Reconstruction of annual temperature (1590–1979) for Longmire, Washington, derived from tree rings. Quat Res 25:223–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. IPCC (2007) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  26. Jacoby GC, D’Arrigo R (1995) Tree-ring width and density evidence of climatic and potential forest change in Alaska. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 9:227–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jacoby G, Lovelius N, Shumilov O, Raspopov O, Kurbainov J, Frank D (2000) Long-term temperature trends and tree growth in the Taymir region of northern Siberia. Quat Res 53:312–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Karl TR, Knight RW (1994) Global and hemispheric temperature trends: uncertainties related to inadequate spatial sampling. J Clim 7:1144–1163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Loehle C (2009) A mathematical analysis of the divergence problem in dendroclimatology. Clim Change 94:3–4. doi: 10.1007/s10584-008-9488-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Peterson TC, Vose R, Schmoyer R, Razuvaev V (1998) Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) quality control of monthly temperature data. Int J Climatol 18:1169–1179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pisaric M, Carey S, Kokelj S, Youngblut D (2007) Anomalous 20th century tree growth, Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada. Geophys Res Lett 34. doi: 10.1029/2006GL029139 Google Scholar
  32. Schweingruber FH (1996) Tree rings and environment—dendroecology. Haupt, BernGoogle Scholar
  33. Wilmking M, Singh J (2008) Eliminating the “divergence problem” at Alaska’s northern treeline. Clim Past Discuss 4:741–759Google Scholar
  34. Wilson RJS, D’Arrigo R, Buckley B, Büntgen U, Esper J, Frank D, Luckman B, Payette S, Vose R, Youngblut D (2007) A matter of divergence: tracking recent warming at hemispheric scales using tree-ring data. J Geophys Res 112. doi: 10.1029/2006JD008318 Google Scholar
  35. Woodhouse CA (1999) Artificial neural networks and dendroclimatic reconstructions: an example from the Front Range, Colorado, USA. Holocene 9:521–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Swiss Federal Research Institute WSLBirmensdorfSwitzerland
  2. 2.Oeschger Centre for Climate Change ResearchBernSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations