Inuit and Scientific Perspectives on the Relationship Between Sea Ice and Climate Change: The Ideal Complement?

Abstract

Sea ice is influential in regulating energy exchanges between the ocean and the atmosphere, and has figured prominently in scientific studies of climate change and climate feedbacks. However, sea ice is also a vital component of everyday life in Inuit communities of the circumpolar Arctic. Therefore, it is important to understand the links between the potential impacts of climate change on Arctic sea ice extent, distribution, and thickness as well as the related consequences for northern coastal populations. This paper explores the relationship between sea ice and climate change from both scientific and Inuit perspectives. Based on an overview of diverse literature the experiences, methods, and goals which differentiate local and scientific sea ice knowledge are examined. These efforts are considered essential background upon which to develop more accurate assessments of community vulnerability to climate, and resulting sea ice, change. Inuit and scientific perspectives may indeed be the ideal complement when investigating the links between sea ice and climate change, but effective and appropriate conceptual bridges need to be built between the two types of expertise. The complementary nature of these knowledge systems may only be realized, in a practical sense, if significant effort is expended to: (i) understand sea ice from both Inuit and scientific perspectives, along with their underlying differences; (ii) investigate common interests or concerns; (iii) establish meaningful and reciprocal research partnerships with Inuit communities; (iv) engage in, and improve, collaborative research methods; and, (v) maintain ongoing dialogue.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Aporta, C.: 2002, ‘Life on the ice: Understanding the codes of a changing environment’, Polar Rec. 38, 341–354.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Aporta, C.: 2004, ‘Routes, trails and tracks: Trail breaking among the Inuit of Igloolik’, Études/Inuit/Stud. 28, 9–38.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Ashford, G. and Castleden, J.: 2001, Inuit Observations on Climate Change: Final Report, Report prepared for International Institute for Sustainable Development, Winnipeg, pp. 27.

  4. Baxter, J. and Eyles, J.: 1997, ‘Evaluating qualitative research in social geography: Establishing `Rigour’, Trans. Inst. Br. Geogr. 22, 505–525.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Baxter, J. and Eyles, J.: 1999, ‘The utility of in-depth interviews for studying the meaning of environmental risk’, Prof. Geogr. 51, 307–320.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Bennett J. and Rowley S. (2004). Uqalurait: An Oral History of Nunavut. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Berkes, F.: 2002, ‘Epilogue: Making Sense of Arctic Environmental Change?’ in Krupnik. I. and Jolly, D. (eds.), The Earth is Faster Now: Indigenous Observations of Arctic Environmental Change, Arctic Research Consortium of the United States in cooperation with the Arctic Studies Center, Smithsonian Institution, Fairbanks, pp. 334–349.

  8. Berkes, F. and Jolly, D.: 2002, ‘Adapting to climate change: Social-ecological resilience in a Canadian Western Arctic community’, Conserv. Ecol. 5, 18.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Berkes, F., Colding, J. and Folke, C.: 2000, ‘Rediscovery of traditional ecological knowledge as adaptive management’, Ecol. Appl. 10, 1251–1262.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Bielawski, E.: 1984, ‘Anthropological observations on science in the north: The role of the scientist in human development in the northwest territories’, Arctic 37, 1–6.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Bielawski, E.: 1992, ‘Inuit indigenous knowledge and science in the Arctic’, North. Perspect. 20, 5–8.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Binder, L. N. and Hanbidge, B.: 1993, ‘Aboriginal people and resource co-management’, in Inglis, J. T. (eds.), Traditional Ecological Knowledge: Concepts and Cases, International Program on Traditional Ecological Knowledge and International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, pp. 121–132.

  13. Bintanja, R. and Oerlemans, J.: 1995, ‘The influence of the albedo-temperature feed-back on climate sensitivity’, Ann. Glaciol. 21, 353–360.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Burgess, P.: 1999, ‘Traditional knowledge', Report prepared for the Arctic Council Indigenous Peoples’ Secretariat, Copenhagen, pp. 133.

  15. Collings, P.: 1997, ‘The cultural context of wildlife management in the Canadian North’, in Smith, E. A. and McCarter, J. (eds.), Contested Arctic: Indigenous Peoples, Industrial States, and the Circumpolar Environment, University of Washington Press, Seattle, pp. 13–40.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Colman, R.: 2003, ‘A comparison of climate feedbacks in general circulation models’, Climate Dyn. 20, 865–873.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Copley, J.: 2000, ‘The great ice mystery’, Nature 408, 634–636.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Cruikshank, J.: 2001, ‘Glaciers and Climate Change: Perspectives from oral tradition’, Arctic 54, 372–393.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Curry, J. A., Schramm, J. L. and Ebert, E. E.: 1995, ‘Sea ice-albedo climate feedback mechanism’, J. Climate 8, 240–247.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Davis, N.: 2000, ‘Arctic oceanography, sea ice, and climate’, in Nuttall, M. and Callaghan, T. V. (eds.), The Arctic: Environment, People, and Policy, Harwood Academic Publishers, Amsterdam, pp. 97–115.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Davis, A. and Wagner, J. R.: 2003, ‘Who Knows? On the importance of identifying “Experts,” when researching local ecological knowledge’, Hum. Ecol. 31, 463–489.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Demeritt, D.: 2001a, ‘The construction of global warming and the politics of science’, Ann. Assoc. Am. Geogr. 91, 307–337.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Demeritt, D.: 2001b, ‘Science and the understanding of science: A reply to Schneider’, Ann. Assoc. Am. Geogr. 91, 345–348.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Dessai, S., Adger, W. N., Hulme, M., Turnpenny, J., Köhler, J., and Warren, R.: 2004, ‘Defining and experiencing dangerous climate change’, Clim. Change 64, 11–25.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Duerden, F.: 2004, ‘Translating climate change impacts at the community level’, Arctic 57, 204–212.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Duerden, F. and Kuhn, R. G.: 1998, ‘Scale, context, and application of traditional knowledge of the Canadian north’, Polar Rec. 34, 31–38.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Eicken, H.: 2003, ‘From the Microscopic, to the Macroscopic, to the Regional Scale: Growth, Microstructure and Properties of Sea Ice’, in Thomas, D. N. and Dieckmann, G. S. (eds.) SEA ICE: An Introduction to Its Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Geology, Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford, pp. 22–81.

  28. Ellerby, J. H.: 2001, Working with Aboriginal Elders, Native Studies Press, Winnipeg.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Fenge, T.: 2001, ‘The inuit and climate change’, Isuma Winter, 79–85.

  30. Ferguson, M. A. and Messier, F.: 1997, ‘Collection and analysis of traditional ecological knowledge about a population of Arctic tundra caribou’, Arctic 50, 17–28.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Ford, N.: 2000, ‘Communicating climate change from the perspective of local people: A case study from Arctic Canada’, J. Dev. Commun. 11, 92–108.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Ford, J. D. and Smit, B.: 2004, ‘A framework for assessing the vulnerability of communities in the Canadian Arctic to risks associated with climate change’, Arctic 57, 389–400.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Fox, S.: 2002, ‘These are things that are really happening: Inuit perspectives on the evidence and impacts of climate change’, in Krupnik, I. and Jolly, D. (eds.), The Earth is Faster Now: Indigenous Observations of Arctic Environmental Change, Arctic Research Consortium of the United States in cooperation with the Arctic Studies Center, Smithsonian Institution, Fairbanks, pp.12–53.

  34. Freeman, M. M. R.: 1984, ‘Contemporary Inuit exploitation of the Sea-ice Environment’, in Sikumiut: “The People Who Use the Sea Ice,”, Canadian Arctic Resources Committee, Montréal, pp. 73–96.

  35. Freeman, M. M. R.: 1992, ‘The nature and utility of traditional ecological knowledge’, North. Perspect. 20, 9–12.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Furgal, C. M., Innes, S. and Kovacs, K. M.: 2002a, ‘Inuit spring hunting techniques and local knowledge of the ringed seal in Arctic Bay (Ikpiarjuk), Nunavut’, Polar Res. 21, 1–16.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Furgal, C., Martin, D. and Gosselin, P.: 2002b, ‘Climate change and health in nunavik and labrador: Lessons from inuit knowledge’, in Krupnik, I. and Jolly, D. (eds.), The Earth Is Faster Now: Indigenous Observations of Arctic Environmental Change, Arctic Research Consortium of the United States in cooperation with the Arctic Studies Center, Smithsonian Institution, Fairbanks, pp. 266–299.

  38. Furgal, C. M., Powell, S. and Myers, H.: 2005, ‘Digesting the message about contaminants and country foods in the Canadian North: A review and recommendations for future research and action’, Arctic 58, 103–114.

    Google Scholar 

  39. George, J. C., Huntington, H. P., Brewster, K., Eicken, H., Norton, D., and Glenn, R.: 2004, ‘Observations on shorefast ice dynamics in Arctic Alaska and the responses of the inupiat hunting community’, Arctic 57, 363–374.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Gilchrist, H. G. and Robertson, G. J.: 2000, ‘Observations of marine birds and mammals wintering at polynyas and ice edges in the Belcher Islands, Nunavut, Canada’, Arctic 53, 61–68.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Grumet, N. A., Wake, C. P., Mayewski, P. A., Zielinski, G. A., Whitlow, S. I., Koerner, R. M., Fisher, D.~A. and Woollett, J. M.: 2001, ‘Variability of sea-ice extent in Baffin Bay over the last millennium’, Clim. Change 49, 129–145.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Holland, M. M., Schramm, J. L. and Curry, J. A.: 1997, ‘Thermodynamic feedback processes in a single-column sea-ice-ocean model’, Ann. Glaciol. 25, 327–332.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Holland, M. M. and Bitz, C. M.: 2003, ‘Polar amplification of climate change in coupled models’, Clim. Dyn. 21, 221–232.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Holloway, G., and Sou, T.: 2002, ‘Has Arctic Sea Ice Rapidly Thinned?’, J. Clim. 15, 1691–1701.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Huntington, H. P.: 1999, ‘Traditional knowledge of the ecology of Beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in the eastern Chukchi and northern Bering Seas, Alaska’, Arctic 52, 49–61.

    Google Scholar 

  46. Huntington, H. P.: 2000a, ‘Native observations capture impacts of sea ice changes’, Witness the Arctic 8, 1–2.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Huntington, H. P.: 2000b, ‘Using traditional ecological knowledge in science: methods and applications’, Ecol. Appl. 10, 1270–1274.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Huntington, H. P.: 2002, ‘Preface: Human understanding and understanding humans in the arctic system’, in Krupnik, I. and Jolly, D. (eds.), The Earth is Faster Now: Indigenous Observations of Arctic Environmental Change, Arctic Research Consortium of the United States in cooperation with the Arctic Studies Center, Smithsonian Institution, Fairbanks, pp. xxi–xxvii.

  49. ICC: 1998, Inuit Circumpolar Conference Charter, URL: http://www.inuit.org/index.asp?lang=eng &num=209. Last accessed: August 4, 2005.

  50. Ingram, W. J., Wilson, C. A., and Mitchell, J. F. B.: 1989, ‘Modeling climate change: An assessment of sea ice and surface albedo feedbacks’, J. Geoph. Res. 94, 8609–9622.

    Google Scholar 

  51. Johannessen, O. M., Shalina, E. V., Miles, M. W.: 1999, ‘Satellite evidence for an arctic sea ice cover in transformation’, Science 286, 1937–1939.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Jolly, D., Berkes, F., Castleden, J., Nichols, T., and the community of Sachs Harbour.: 2002, ‘We can't predict the weather like we used to: Inuvialuit observations of climate change, sachs harbour, Western Canadian Arctic’, in Krupnik, I. and Jolly, D. (eds.), The Earth is Faster Now: Indigenous Observations of Arctic Environmental Change, Arctic Research Consortium of the United States in cooperation with the Arctic Studies Center, Smithsonian Institution, Fairbanks, pp. 92– 125.

  53. Kerr, R. A.: 1999, ‘Will the Arctic Ocean lose all its ice?’, Science 286, 1828.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Kofinas, G., with the community of Aklavik, Arctic Village, Old Crow, and Fort McPherson.: 2002, ‘Community contributions to ecological monitoring: Knowledge co-production in the, U.S.-Canada Arctic Borderlands’, in Krupnik, I. and Jolly, D. (eds.), The Earth is Faster Now: Indigenous Observations of Arctic Environmental Change, Arctic Research Consortium of the United States in cooperation with the Arctic Studies Center, Smithsonian Institution, Fairbanks, pp. 54–91.

  55. Krupnik, I.: 2002, ‘Watching ice and weather our way: Some lessons from Yupik observations of sea ice and weather on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska’, in Krupnik, I. and Jolly, D. (eds.), The Earth is Faster Now: Indigenous Observations of Arctic Environmental Change, Arctic Research Consortium of the United States in cooperation with the Arctic Studies Center, Smithsonian Institution, Fairbanks, pp. 156–197.

  56. Kuhn, R. and Duerden, F.: 1996, ‘A review of traditional environmental knowledge: An interdisciplinary canadian perspective’, Culture 16, 71–84.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Laidler, G. J.: 2004, ‘Interpreting climate models: A review of the interplay between sea ice and climate’, in Danby, R. K., Castleden, H., Giles, A. R., and Rausch, J. (eds.), Breaking the Ice: Proceedings of a Conference on Northern Studies, Association of Canadian Universities for Northern Studies, Edmonton, October 24–25, 2003, pp. 90–106.

  58. Ledley, T. S.: 1988, ‘A coupled energy balance climate-sea ice model: Impact of sea ice and leads on climate’, J. Geoph. Res. 93, 15,919–15,932.

    Google Scholar 

  59. Lemke, F., Harder, M. and Hilmer, M.: 2000, ‘The response of arctic sea ice to global change’, Clim. Change 46, 277–287.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Lincoln, Y. and Guba, E.: 1985, Naturalistic Inquiry, Sage, Beverly Hills.

  61. Lock, G. S. H.: 1990, The Growth and Decay of Ice, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

    Google Scholar 

  62. Lohmenn, G. and Gerdes, R.: 1998, ‘Sea ice effects on the sensitivity of the thermohaline circulation’, J. Clim. 11, 2789–2803.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. MacDonald, J.: 1998, The Arctic Sky: Inuit Astronomy, Star Lore, and Legend, The Royal Ontario Museum and the Nunavut Research Institute, Toronto and Iqaluit.

  64. Manning, M. R.: 2003, ‘The difficulty of communicating uncertainty: An editorial comment’, Clim. Change 61, 9–16.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. McDonald Fleming, M.: 1992, ‘Reindeer management in Canada's Belcher Islands: Documenting and using traditional environmental knowledge’, in Johnson, M. (ed.), International Development Research Centre and the Dene Cultural Institute, Ottawa, pp. 69–87.

  66. McDonald, M., Arragutainaq, L., and Novalinga, Z. (eds.): 1997, Voices from the Bay – Traditional Ecological Knowledge of Inuit and Cree in the Hudson Bay Bioregion, Canadian Arctic Resources Committee and the Municipality of Sanikiluaq, Ottawa and Sanikiluaq, p. 98.

  67. McGrath, J.: 2003, ‘Interview: Janet McGrath on IQ’, Meridian Spring/Summer, 5–9.

  68. McGregor, D.: 2000, ‘The state of traditional ecological knowledge research in Canada: A critique of current theory and practice’, in Laliberte, R. F., Settee, P., Waldram, J. B., Innes, R., Macdougall, B., McBain, L., and Barron, F. L. (eds.), Expressions in Canadian Native Studies, University of Saskatchewan Extension Press, Saskatoon, pp. 436–458.

  69. Moller, H., Berkes, F. L., Lyver, P. O., and Kislalioglu, M.: 2004, ‘Combining science and traditional ecological knowledge: Monitoring populations for co-management’, Ecol. Soc. 9, 15 [online].

    Google Scholar 

  70. Mysak, L. A. and Manak, D. K.: 1989, ‘Arctic sea-ice extent and anomalies, 1953–1984’, Atmosphere-Ocean 27, 376–405.

    Google Scholar 

  71. Nadasdy, P.: 1999, ‘The politics of TEK: Power and the “integration,” of knowledge’, Arctic Anthropol. 36, 1–18.

    Google Scholar 

  72. Nakashima, D. J.: 1993, ‘Astute observers on the sea ice edge: Inuit knowledge as a basis for Arctic Co-Management’, in Inglis, J. T. (ed.), Traditional Ecological Knowledge: Concepts and Cases, International Program on Traditional Ecological Knowledge and International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, pp. 99–110.

  73. Nelson, R. K.: 1969, Hunters of the Northern Ice, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, p. 429.

    Google Scholar 

  74. Nichols, T., Berkes, F., Jolly, D., Snow, N. B., and The Community of Sachs Harbour.: 2004, ‘Climate Change and Sea Ice: Local Observations from the Canadian Western Arctic’, Arctic 57, 68–79.

  75. Nickels, S., Furgal, C., Castleden, J., Moss-Davies, P., Buell, M., Armstrong, B., Dillon, D., and Fonger, R.: 2002, ‘Putting the human face on climate change through community workshops: Inuit knowledge, partnerships, and research’, in Krupnik, I. and Jolly, D. (eds.), The Earth Is Faster Now: Indigenous Observations of Arctic Environmental Change, Arctic Research Consortium of the United States, Fairbanks, pp. 301–333.

  76. Norton, D.: 2002, ‘Coastal sea ice watch: Private confessions of a convert to indigenous knowledge’, in Krupnik, I. and Jolly, D. (eds.), The Earth is Faster Now: Indigenous Observations of Arctic Environmental Change, Arctic Research Consortium of the United States in cooperation with the Arctic Studies Center, Smithsonian Institution, Fairbanks, pp. 126–155.

  77. Nuttall, M.: 1998, ‘Critical reflections on knowledge gathering in the Arctic’, in Dorais, L.-J., Nagy, M., and Muller-Wille, L. (eds.), Aboriginal Environmental Knowledge in the North, Université Laval, Québec, pp. 21–35.

  78. Oozeva, C., Noongwook, C., Noongwook, G., Alowa, C., and Krupnik, I.: 2004, Watching Ice and Weather Our Way, Arctic Studies Center, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., p. 207.

  79. Parkinson, C. L., Cavalieri, D. J., Gloerson, P., Zwally, J. J., and Comiso, J.: 1999, ‘Arctic sea ice extents, areas, and trends, 1978–1996’, J. Geoph. Res. 104, 20,837–20,856.

    Google Scholar 

  80. Pelly, D. F.: 2001, Sacred Hunt: A Portrait of the Relationship Between Seals and Inuit. University of Washington Press and Greystone Books, Seattle, p. 127.

  81. Poirier, P. and Brooke, L.: 2000, ‘Inuit perceptions of contaminants and environmental knowledge in Salluit, Nunavik’, Arctic Anthropol. 37, 78–91.

    Google Scholar 

  82. Richard, P. R., and Pike, D. G.: 1993, ‘Small whale co-management in the Eastern Canadian Arctic: A case history and analysis’, Arctic 46, 138–143.

    Google Scholar 

  83. Richardson, B.: 1993, ‘Harvesting traditional knowledge: The Hudson Bay Program is teaching scientists how to see the environment through the Natives' eyes’, Nat. Can. 22, 30–37.

    Google Scholar 

  84. Riedlinger, D. and Berkes, F.: 2001, ‘Contributions of traditional knowledge to understanding climate change in the Canadian Arctic’, Polar Rec. 37, 315–328.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  85. Riewe, R.: 1991, ‘Inuit use of the sea ice’, Arctic Alpine Res. 23, 3–10.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  86. Robards, M. and Alessa, L.: 2004, ‘Timescapes of community resilience and vulnerability in the circumpolar North’, Arctic 57, 415427.

    Google Scholar 

  87. Rodon T. (1998). Co-management and self-determination in Nunavut. Polar Geography, 22, 119–135.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  88. Saenko, O. A., Flato, G. M., and Weaver, A. J.: 2002, ‘Improved representation of sea-ice processes in climate models’, Atmosphere-Ocean 40, 21–43.

    Google Scholar 

  89. Schneider, S. H.: 2001, ‘A constructive deconstruction of deconstructionists: A response to demeritt’, Ann. Assoc. Am. Geogr. 91, 338–344.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  90. Searles, E.: 2001, ‘Interpersonal politics, social science research and the construction of Inuit identity’, Études/Inuit/Studies 25, 101–119.

    Google Scholar 

  91. Stern, P.: 1999, ‘Learning to be smart: An exploration of the culture of intelligence in a Canadian Inuit Community’, Am. Anthropol. 101, 502–514.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  92. Stevenson, M. G.: 1996, ‘Indigenous knowledge in environmental assessment’, Arctic 49, 278– 291.

    Google Scholar 

  93. Thomas D. N. and Dieckmann G. S. (2003). Glossary. SEA ICE: An Introduction to its Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Geology. Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd.

    Google Scholar 

  94. Thorpe, N. L.: 1998, ‘The Hiukitak School of Tuktu: Collecting Inuit ecological knowledge of caribou and calving areas through an elder-youth camp’, Arctic 51, 403–408.

    Google Scholar 

  95. Thorpe, N. L., Hakongak, N., Eyegetok, S., and the Kitikmeot Elders: 2001, Thunder on the Tundra: Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit of the Bathurst Caribou, Tuktu and Nogak Project, Ikaluktuuttiak.

  96. Thorpe, N., Eyegetok, S., Hakongak, N., and the Kitikmeot Elders: 2002, ‘Nowadays it is not the same: Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit, climate and caribou in the Kitikmeot region of Nunavut, Canada’, in Krupnik, I. and Jolly, D. (eds.), The Earth Is Faster Now: Indigenous Observations of Arctic Environmental Change, Arctic Research Consortium of the United States in cooperation with the Arctic Studies Center, Smithsonian Institution, Fairbanks, pp. 198–239.

  97. Usher, P. J.: 2000, ‘Traditional ecological knowledge in environmental assessment and management’, Arctic 55, 183–193.

    Google Scholar 

  98. Vellinga, M. and Wood, R. A.: 2002, ‘Global climatic impacts of a collapse of the Atlantic Thermohaline Circulation’, Clim. Change 54, 251–267.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  99. Vinnikov, K. Y., Robock, A., Stouffer, R. J., Walsh, J. E., Parkinson, C. L., Cavalieri, D. J., Mitchell, J. F. B., Garrett, D., and Zakharov, V. F.: 1999, ‘Global warming and Northern Hemisphere sea ice extent’, Science 286, 1934–1937.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  100. Wadhams, P.: 2000, Ice in the Ocean, Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, Cambridge.

    Google Scholar 

  101. Walsh, J. E. and Timlin, M. S.: 2003, ‘Northern Hemisphere sea ice simulations by global climate models’, Polar Res. 22, 75–82.

    Google Scholar 

  102. Weller, G.: 2000, ‘The Weather and Climate of the Arctic’, in Nuttall, M. and Callaghan, T. V. (eds.), The Arctic: Environment, People, and Policy, Harwood Academic Publishers, Amsterdam, pp. 143–160.

  103. Wenzel, G. W.: 1991, ‘Traditional people in the modern world’, Animal Rights, Human Rights, Bellhaven Press, London, pp. 11–34.

  104. Wenzel, G. W.: 1997, ‘Using Harvest Research in Nunavut: An example from Hall Beach’, Arctic Anthropol. 34, 18–28.

    Google Scholar 

  105. Wenzel, G. W.: 1999, ‘Traditional ecological knowledge and Inuit: Reflections on TEK research and ethics’, Arctic 52, 113–124.

    Google Scholar 

  106. Wenzel, G. W.: 2004, ‘From TEK to IQ: Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit and Inuit cultural ecology’, Arctic Anthropol. 41, 238–250.

    Google Scholar 

  107. WMO: 1970, ‘WMO sea ice nomenclature’, Report prepared for Secretariat of the World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, pp. 149.

  108. Zamporo J: 1996, ‘Informing the fact: Inuit traditional knowledge contributes another perspective’, Geosci. Can. 23, 261–266.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Gita J. Laidler.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Laidler, G.J. Inuit and Scientific Perspectives on the Relationship Between Sea Ice and Climate Change: The Ideal Complement?. Climatic Change 78, 407 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-006-9064-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Indigenous Knowledge
  • Traditional Ecological Knowledge
  • Scientific Perspective
  • Inuit Community
  • Arctic Study