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Assessing the Prevalence Rates of Internalizing Symptomatology Among Multiracial Adolescents in the United States: A Systematic Review

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This systematic review aimed to investigate the prevalence of internalizing symptomatology among Multiracial adolescents in the United States and to report on the methods utilized to measure Multiracial race and internalizing symptoms. A comprehensive search was conducted in Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, APA PsycInfo, and Web of Science Core Collection. The search was confined to peer-reviewed studies reporting the prevalence of any internalizing symptom among Multiracial adolescents between 10 and 24 years in the United States. Study selection, data abstraction, and quality assessments were managed by four team members. Between 2000 and 2023, nine studies provided prevalence estimates and used various methods to measure Multiracial race and internalizing symptoms. Prevalence estimates displayed considerable variability depending on symptom examined and measurement method utilized. For all internalizing symptomatology, estimates ranged between 7.5 and 55.2%; for depressive symptomatology, estimates ranged between 12.8 and 51.0%. No information on the prevalence of anxiety symptoms alone were provided. This review represents a pioneering attempt to report the prevalence of internalizing symptomatology among Multiracial adolescents in the United States, revealing significant gaps in current knowledge and methodological inconsistencies in the field. There exists a need for more comprehensive epidemiological research with this growing population.

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Dr. Weerakoon is supported by the T32 Research Training Program in Substance Abuse Prevention (T32DA019426). Additionally, the authors would like to thank Melissa C. Funaro, Clinical Research and Education Librarian of the Cushing/Whitney Medical Library for help with the literature searches and technical support.


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MHG and SMW designed and led the study, contributing significantly to manuscript writing, data analysis, and the creation of tables and figures. Collaboratively, MHG and SMW developed and executed search queries. CD and TC played a pivotal role in screening and abstracting articles. IO, KAB, KLS, and SEM served as scientific advisors, offering important edits and revisions throughout the development of the manuscript. All authors reviewed and approved the final version of the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Mike Henson-García.

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Henson-García, M., Weerakoon, S.M., Duncan, C. et al. Assessing the Prevalence Rates of Internalizing Symptomatology Among Multiracial Adolescents in the United States: A Systematic Review. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev (2023).

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