Preterm birth (PTB) is associated with increased risk for unfavorable outcomes such as deficits in attentional control and related brain structure alterations. Crucially, PTB is more likely to occur within the context of poverty. The current study examined associations between PTB and inhibitory control (IC) implicated brain regions/tracts and task performance, as well as the moderating role of early life poverty on the relation between PTB and IC-implicated regions/tracts/task performance. 2,899 children from the ABCD study were sampled for this study. Mixed effects models examined the relation between PTB and subsequent IC performance as well as prefrontal gray matter volume, white matter fractional anisotropy (FA), and mean diffusivity (MD). Household income was examined as a moderator. PTB was significantly associated with less improvement in IC task performance over time and decreased FA in left uncinate fasciculus (UF) and cingulum bundle (CB). Early life poverty moderated the relation between PTB and both CB FA and UF MD.
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Data used in the preparation of this article were obtained from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive DevelopmentSM (ABCD) Study (https://abcdstudy.org), held in the NIMH Data Archive (NDA). This is a multisite, longitudinal study designed to recruit more than 10,000 children age 9–10 and follow them over 10 years into early adulthood. The ABCD Study® is supported by the National Institutes of Health and additional federal partners under award numbers U01DA041048, U01DA050989, U01DA051016, U01DA041022, U01DA051018, U01DA051037, U01DA050987, U01DA041174, U01DA041106, U01DA041117, U01DA041028, U01DA041134, U01DA050988, U01DA051039, U01DA041156, U01DA041025, U01DA041120, U01DA051038, U01DA041148, U01DA041093, U01DA041089, U24DA041123, U24DA041147. A full list of supporters is available at https://abcdstudy.org/federal-partners.html. A listing of participating sites and a complete listing of the study investigators can be found at https://abcdstudy.org/consortium_members/. ABCD consortium investigators designed and implemented the study and/or provided data but did not necessarily participate in the analysis or writing of this report. This manuscript reflects the views of the authors and may not reflect the opinions or views of the NIH or ABCD consortium investigators.
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The authors would like to thank all of the ABCD Study participants and their families, as well as the members of the ABCD Study research teams across for their dedication and hard work.
R. L. Taylor is funded by the National Science Foundation (Grant #s DGE-1745038 and DGE-2139839). C. E. Rogers, C. D. Smyser, and D. M. Barch are funded by the National Institutes of Health (Grant #s GR0026407 and U01 DA041120).
Conflict of Interest
The authors have no financial, non-financial, or other conflicts of interest to disclose.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Washington University in St. Louis (201708123).
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Taylor, R.L., Rogers, C.E., Smyser, C.D. et al. Associations Between Preterm Birth, Inhibitory Control-Implicated Brain Regions and Tracts, and Inhibitory Control Task Performance in Children: Consideration of Socioeconomic Context. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-023-01531-y