Timing of Family Adversity During Adolescence and its Impact on Alcohol and Tobacco Initiation: A Longitudinal Study Among Taiwanese Adolescents

Abstract

We examined the impact of time-varying exposure to family adversity, including parental conflict, parental absence from home, divorce, and parental death, on the timing of drinking and smoking initiation among Taiwanese youth between ages 14 and 22 years. We used six waves of data from a longitudinal panel study conducted in northern Taiwan between 2001 and 2009, and included 5446 students. The analysis demonstrated that exposure to parental conflict, divorce, and parental death increased the risk of drinking and smoking initiation. The odds ratios (OR) for smoking and drinking initiation among youth experiencing conflict between parents were 1.33 (95% CI 1.10–1.73) for smoking and 2.00 (1.26–3.20) for drinking. The OR for parental death were 2.96 (1.69–5.18) for smoking and 8.07 (1.79–36.49) for drinking. The association becomes more pronounced at age 18 (i.e., the legal age for drinking and smoking in Taiwan), and lasts until early adulthood.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. 1.

    Shonkoff JP, Garner AS, Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health, Committee on Early Childhood, Adoption, and Dependent Care (2011) The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress. Pediatrics 129(1):e232–e246

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Fergus S, Zimmerman MA (2005) Adolescent resilience: a framework for understanding healthy development in the face of risk. Annu Rev Public Health 26:399–419

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2013) Results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings, NSDUH Series H-46, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 13-4795. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Rockville

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Duff C, Puri AK, Chow C (2011) Ethno-cultural differences in the use of alcohol and other drugs: evidence from the Vancouver youth drug reporting system. J Ethn Subst Abuse 10(1):2–23

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Petraitis J, Flay BR, Miller TQ (1995) Reviewing theories of adolescent substance use: organizing pieces in the puzzle. Psychol Bull 117(1):67

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Sudraba V, Millere A, Deklava L, Millere E, Zumente Z, Circenis K et al (2015) Stress coping strategies of drug and alcohol addicted patients in Latvia. Proc Soc Behav Sci 205:632–636

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Anda RF, Whitfield CL, Felitti VJ, Chapman D, Edwards VJ, Dube SR et al (2002) Adverse childhood experiences, alcoholic parents, and later risk of alcoholism and depression. Psychiatr Serv 53(8):1001–1009

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Dube SR, Felitti VJ, Dong M, Chapman DP, Giles WH, Anda RF (2003) Childhood abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction and the risk of illicit drug use: the adverse childhood experiences study. Pediatrics 111(3):564–572

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Doherty WJ, Needle RH (1991) Psychological adjustment and substance use among adolescents before and after a parental divorce. Child Dev 62(2):328–337

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Needle RH, Su SS, Doherty WJ (1990) Divorce, remarriage, and adolescent substance use: a prospective longitudinal study. J Marriage Fam 52(1):157–169

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Flewelling RL, Bauman KE (1990) Family structure as a predictor of initial substance use and sexual intercourse in early adolescence. J Marriage Fam 52(1):171–181

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Gruber KJ, Taylor MF (2006) A family perspective for substance abuse: implications from the literature. J Soc Work Pract Addict 6(1–2):1–29

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    McMahon TJ, Rounsaville BJ (2002) Substance abuse and fathering: adding poppa to the research agenda. Addiction 97(9):1109–1115

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Goodwin DW (1982) The genetics of alcoholism. Biol Mark Psychiatry Neurol. https://doi.org/10.1176/ps.34.11.1031

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Dube SR, Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Croft JB, Edwards VJ, Giles WH (2001) Growing up with parental alcohol abuse: exposure to childhood abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction. Child Abuse Negl 25(12):1627–1640

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Gilman SE, Rende R, Boergers J, Abrams DB, Buka SL, Clark MA et al (2009) Parental smoking and adolescent smoking initiation: an intergenerational perspective on tobacco control. Pediatrics 123(2):e274–e281

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Hiemstra M, Otten R, Engels RC (2012) Smoking onset and the time-varying effects of self-efficacy, environmental smoking, and smoking-specific parenting by using discrete-time survival analysis. J Behav Med 35(2):240–251

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Singer JD, Willett JB (1993) It’s about time: using discrete-time survival analysis to study duration and the timing of events. J Educ Behav Stat 18(2):155–195

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Willett JB, Singer JD (1993) Investigating onset, cessation, relapse, and recovery: why you should, and how you can, use discrete-time survival analysis to examine event occurrence. J Consult Clin Psychol 61(6):952

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    StataCorp (2015) Stata Statistical Software: Release 14

  21. 21.

    Anda RF, Croft JB, Felitti VJ, Nordenberg D, Giles WH, Williamson DF et al (1999) Adverse childhood experiences and smoking during adolescence and adulthood. JAMA 282(17):1652–1658

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Lacey RE, Zilanawala A, Webb E, Abell J, Bell S (2016) Parental absence in early childhood and onset of smoking and alcohol consumption before adolescence. Arch Dis Child. https://doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2016-310444

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Radziszewska B, Richardson JL, Dent CW, Flay BR (1996) Parenting style and adolescent depressive symptoms, smoking, and academic achievement: ethnic, gender, and SES differences. J Behav Med 19(3):289–305

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Griesbach D, Amos A, Currie C (2003) Adolescent smoking and family structure in Europe. Soc Sci Med 56(1):41–52

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Jeynes WH (2001) The effects of recent parental divorce on their children’s consumption of alcohol. J Youth Adolesc 30(3):305–319

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Kristjansson AL, Sigfusdottir ID, Allegrante JP, Helgason AR (2009) Parental divorce and adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use: assessing the importance of family conflict. Acta Paediatr 98(3):537–542

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    (Taiwan) NDCROC (2001–2009) Taiwan Statistical Data Book

  28. 28.

    Cherlin AJ (2010) Demographic trends in the United States: a review of research in the 2000s. J Marriage Fam 72(3):403–419

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Amato PR (1993) Children’s adjustment to divorce: theories, hypotheses, and empirical support. J Marriage Fam 55(1):23–38

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Casey B, Jones RM (2010) Neurobiology of the adolescent brain and behavior: implications for substance use disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 49(12):1189–1201

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Wagenaar AC, Toomey TL (2002) Effects of minimum drinking age laws: review and analyses of the literature from 1960 to 2000. J Stud Alcohol Suppl(14):206–225

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Chen L (2008) A study on the relationship among self-concept, coping strategy, and depression of adolescents (Master thesis). Available from NKNU Institutional Repository. (Item 987654321/6635)

  33. 33.

    Zhang H, Behrman JR, Fan CS, Wei X, Zhang J (2014) Does parental absence reduce cognitive achievements? Evidence from rural China. J Dev Econ 111:181–195

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Pargas RCM, Brennan PA, Hammen C, Le Brocque R (2010) Resilience to maternal depression in young adulthood. Dev Psychol 46(4):805

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Huisman M, Kunst AE, Mackenbach JP (2005) Inequalities in the prevalence of smoking in the European Union: comparing education and income. Prev Med 40(6):756–764

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Eaton DK, Kann L, Kinchen S, Shanklin S, Ross J, Hawkins J, Harris WA et al (2008) Youth risk behavior surveillance–United States, 2007. Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Surveillance summaries (Washington, DC: 2002) 57(4):1–131

  37. 37.

    Donovan JE, Jessor R (1985) Structure of problem behavior in adolescence and young adulthood. J Consult Clin Psychol 53(6):890

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Grant BF (1998) Age at smoking onset and its association with alcohol consumption and DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence: results from the National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey. J Subst Abuse 10(1):59–73

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Kulbok PA, Cox CL (2002) Dimensions of adolescent health behavior. J Adolesc Health 31(5):394–400

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    DeWit DJ, Adlaf EM, Offord DR, Ogborne AC (2000) Age at first alcohol use: a risk factor for the development of alcohol disorders. Am J Psychiatry 157(5):745–750

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Kendler KS, Myers J, Damaj MI, Chen X (2013) Early smoking onset and risk for subsequent nicotine dependence: a monozygotic co-twin control study. Am J Psychiatry 170(4):408–413

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Hingson R, Heeren T, Levenson S, Jamanka A, Voas R (2002) Age of drinking onset, driving after drinking, and involvement in alcohol related motor-vehicle crashes. Accid Anal Prev 34(1):85–92

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Hanson MD, Chen E (2007) Socioeconomic status and health behaviors in adolescence: a review of the literature. J Behav Med 30(3):263

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the researchers, participants, and staff of the Taiwan Youth Project, conducted by Academia Sinica in Taiwan, for their valuable contributions. We gratefully acknowledge Dr. Chin-Chun Yi for the instruction to the project.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

Drs. Hsu and Kawachi had full access to all of the data in the study, and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yu-Tien Hsu.

Electronic supplementary material

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Hsu, Y., Kawachi, I. Timing of Family Adversity During Adolescence and its Impact on Alcohol and Tobacco Initiation: A Longitudinal Study Among Taiwanese Adolescents. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 50, 257–267 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-018-0838-0

Download citation

Keywords

  • Family adversity
  • Family structure
  • Adolescence
  • Substance use
  • Asian