Evidence Supporting the Internal Validity of the Proposed ND-PAE Disorder

Original Article


The internal validity of the proposed Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (ND-PAE) was evaluated in children diagnosed with either Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) or partial FAS who were 3–10 years of age and had enrolled in a math intervention study. Symptoms were coded as present or absent using assessments conducted in the study, including standardized measures of neurocognitive and behavioral functioning, parent interview, and direct observations of the child. The number of endorsed ND-PAE symptoms was not related to environmental factors but was moderately related to the child’s age. ND-PAE symptoms were highly consistent and this did not vary by age. Evidence suggested the ND-PAE adaptive symptoms may be too restrictive and only one symptom from this domain may be sufficient. Impulsiveness was not related to an endorsement of the ND-PAE disorder but research is needed with other clinical groups to establish the discriminative validity of this symptom.


ND-PAE Prenatal alcohol Fetal alcohol Psychiatric disorder 

Supplementary material

10578_2017_738_MOESM1_ESM.docx (27 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 27 KB)

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departments of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesEmory University School of MedicineAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Department of PediatricsEmory University School of MedicineAtlantaUSA

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