Child Psychiatry & Human Development

, Volume 48, Issue 4, pp 651–667 | Cite as

The Parenting Anxious Kids Ratings Scale-Parent Report (PAKRS-PR): Initial Scale Development and Psychometric Properties

  • Christopher A. FlessnerEmail author
  • Yolanda E. Murphy
  • Elle Brennan
  • Alexandra D’Auria
Original Article


Developmental models of pediatric anxiety posit multiple, maladaptive parenting behaviors as potential risk factors. Despite this, a standardized means of assessing multiple of these practices (i.e., anxiogenic parenting) in a comprehensive and efficient manner are lacking. In Study 1531 parents of children 7–17 years old completed an online survey via Amazon Mechanical Turk. In Study 2, a separate community sample (N = 109; 9–17 years old) was recruited and completed a comprehensive assessment battery as part of a larger study. All parents (Study 1 and 2 samples) completed the Parenting Anxious Kids Ratings Scale-Parent Report (PAKRS-PR), a measurement tool designed to assess anxiogenic parenting. Factor analysis conducted as part of Study 1 revealed a 32-item scale consisting of five factors: conflict, overinvolvement, accommodation/beliefs, modeling, and emotional warmth/support. Four of these factors were significantly correlated with parent-report of anxiety severity. Within Study 2, the parents of children diagnosed with an anxiety or related disorder reported significantly higher levels of anxiogenic parenting practices as compared to the parents of healthy controls. The PAKRS-PR and respective subscales demonstrated acceptable reliability and validity in both the internet (Study 1) and community (Study 2) samples. The PAKRS-PR may be a beneficial multidimensional parenting scale for use among anxious youths.


Anxiety Parenting Family functioning 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher A. Flessner
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yolanda E. Murphy
    • 1
  • Elle Brennan
    • 1
  • Alexandra D’Auria
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychological SciencesKent State UniversityKentUSA

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