Child Psychiatry & Human Development

, Volume 46, Issue 3, pp 474–484 | Cite as

Variations in the Influence of Parental Socialization of Anxiety among Clinic Referred Children

  • Lindsay E. Holly
  • Armando A. PinaEmail author
Original Article


This study examined the relations between parental socialization of child anxious behaviors (i.e., reinforcement, punishment, modeling, transmission of information) and child anxiety and related problems at varying child sensitivity levels. Data corresponding to 70 clinic-referred children (M age = 9.86 years; 50 % girls; 49 % Hispanic/Latino, 51 % Caucasian) showed that for children with low (but not high) anxiety sensitivity, anxiety-related parental socialization behaviors were associated with more child anxiety and depression symptoms. Findings also indicated that parental socialization of anxious behaviors and anxiety sensitivity functioned similarly in the prediction of anxiety and depression across Caucasian and Hispanic/Latino children. There were no significant mean level variations across child sociodemographic characteristics in general, but anxiety-promoting parenting behaviors were twice as high in Hispanic/Latino compared to Caucasian families.


Parenting behaviors Child anxiety Child depression Anxiety sensitivity 



This work was supported in part by Grant number K01MH086687 awarded to A. Pina as well as a prevention science fellowship awarded to L. Holly, T32 MH018387 27 from the National Institute of Mental Health. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not represent the official views of the funding agency.


  1. 1.
    Chorpita BF, Barlow DH (1998) The development of anxiety: the role of control in the early environment. Psychol Bull 124(1):3–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Craske MG (1999) Anxiety disorders: psychological approaches to theory and treatment. Westview Press, Boulder, COGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dadds MR, Barrett PM (1996) Family processes in child and adolescent anxiety and depression. Behav Change 13(4):231–239Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Field AP, Cartwright-Hatton S, Reynolds S, Creswell C (2008) Future directions for child anxiety theory and treatment. Cogn Emot 22(3):385–394Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fox NA, Henderson HA, Marshall PJ, Nichols KE, Ghera MM (2005) Behavioral inhibition: linking biology and behavior within a developmental framework. Annu Rev Psychol 56:235–262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Krohne HW (1990) Parental childrearing and anxiety development. In: Hurrelmann K, Losel F (eds) Health hazards in adolescence. Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin, Germany, pp 115–130Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Manassis K, Bradley SJ (1994) The development of childhood anxiety disorders: toward an integrated model. J Appl Dev Psychol 15(3):345–366Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wood JJ, McLeod BD, Sigman M, Hwang W-C, Chu BC (2003) Parenting and childhood anxiety: theory, empirical findings, and future directions. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 44(1):134–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Thompson RA (2001) Childhood anxiety disorders from the perspective of emotion regulation and attachment. In: Vasey MW, Dadds MR (eds) The developmental psychopathology of anxiety. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 160–182Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rapee RM (2001) The development of generalized anxiety. In: Vasey MW, Dadds MR (eds) The developmental psychopathology of anxiety. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 481–503Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hudson JL, Rapee RM (2001) Parent—child interactions and anxiety disorders: an observational study. Behav Res Ther 39(12):1411–1427PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hudson JL, Dodd HF, Lyneham HJ, Bovopoulous N (2011) Temperament and family environment in the development of anxiety disorder: two-year follow-up. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 50(12):1255–1264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Festa CC, Ginsburg GS (2011) Parental and peer predictors of social anxiety in youth. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 42(3):291–306PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ginsburg GS, Siqueland L, Masia-Warner C, Hedtke KA (2004) Anxiety disorders in children: family matters. Cogn Behav Pract 11(1):28–43Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Edwards SL, Rapee RM, Kennedy S (2010) Prediction of anxiety symptoms in preschool-aged children: examination of maternal and paternal perspectives. J Child Psychol Psychiatr 51(3):313–321Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    McLeod BD, Weisz JR, Wood JJ (2007) Examining the association between parenting and childhood depression: a meta-analysis. Clin Psychol Rev 27(8):986–1003PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Trentacosta CJ, Shaw DS (2008) Maternal predictors of rejecting parenting and early adolescent antisocial behavior. J Abnorm Child Psychol 36(2):247–259PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ginsburg GS, Grover RL, Cord JJ, Ialongo N (2006) Observational measures of parenting in anxious and nonanxious mothers: does type of task matter? J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 35(2):323–328PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Barrett PM, Dadds MR, Rapee RM (1996) Family treatment of childhood anxiety: a controlled trial. J Consult Clin Psychol 64(2):333–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chorpita BF, Albano AM, Barlow DH (1996) Child anxiety sensitivity index: considerations for children with anxiety disorders. J Clin Child Psychol 25(1):77–82Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ginsburg GS, Grover RL, Ialongo N (2004) Parenting behaviors among anxious and non-anxious mothers: relation with concurrent and long-term child outcomes. Child Fam Behav Ther 26(4):23–41Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Muris P, Merckelbach H (1998) Perceived parental rearing behaviour and anxiety disorders symptoms in normal children. Pers Individ Dif 25(6):1199–1206Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rapee R (2001) The development of generalized anxiety. In: Dadds MVM (ed) The developmental psychopathology of anxiety. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 481–503Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dadds MR, Barrett PM, Rapee RM, Ryan S (1996) Family process and child anxiety and aggression: an observational analysis. J Abnorm Child Psychol 24(6):715–734PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Breinholst S, Esbjørn BH, Reinholdt-Dunne ML, Stallard P (2012) CBT for the treatment of child anxiety disorders: a review of why parental involvement has not enhanced outcomes. J Anxiety Disord 26(3):416–424PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Beidel DC, Turner SM (1997) At risk for anxiety: psychopathology in the offspring of anxious parents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36(7):918–924PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bögels SM, Brechman-Toussaint ML (2006) Family issues in child anxiety: attachment, family functioning, parental rearing and beliefs. Clin Psychol Rev 26(7):834–856PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fisak B Jr, Grills-Taquechel AE (2007) Parental modeling, reinforcement, and information transfer: risk factors in the development of child anxiety? Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 10(3):213–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bandura A (1977) Social learning theory. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bruch MA, Heimberg RG (1994) Differences in perceptions of parental and personal characteristics between generalized and nongeneralized social phobics. J Anxiety Disord 8(2):155–168Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Beidel DC, Turner SM (1998) Shy children, phobic adults: Nature and treatment of social phobia. American Psychological Association, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lester KJ, Field AP, Oliver S, Cartwright-Hatton S (2009) Do anxious parents interpretive biases towards threat extend into their child’s environment? Behav Res Ther 47(2):170–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Burstein M, Ginsburg GS (2010) The effect of parental modeling of anxious behaviors and cognitions in school-aged children: an experimental pilot study. Behav Res Ther 48(6):506–515PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Muris P, Merckelbach H, Holdrinet I, Sijsenaar M (1998) Treating phobic children: effects of EMDR versus exposure. J Consult Clin Psychol 66(1):193–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Roelofs J, Meesters C, ter Huurne M, Bamelis L, Muris P (2006) On the links between attachment style, parental rearing behaviors, and internalizing and externalizing problems in non-clinical children. J Child Fam Stud 15(3):319–332Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Muris P, Steerneman P, Merckelbach H, Meesters C (1996) The role of parental fearfulness and modeling in children’s fear. Behav Res Ther 34(3):265–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    van Brakel AM, Muris P, Bögels SM, Thomassen C (2006) A multifactorial model for the etiology of anxiety in non-clinical adolescents: main and interactive effects of behavioral inhibition, attachment and parental rearing. J Child Fam Stud 15(5):568–578Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Monroe SM, Simons AD (1991) Diathesis-stress theories in the context of life stress research: implications for the depressive disorders. Psychol Bull 110(3):406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Zuckerman M (1999) Vulnerability to psychopathology: a biosocial model. American Psychological Association, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Belsky J, Hsieh K-H, Crnic K (1998) Mothering, fathering, and infant negativity as antecedents of boys’ externalizing problems and inhibition at age 3 years: differential susceptibility to rearing experience? Dev Psychopathol 10(02):301–319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bradley RH, Corwyn RF (2008) Infant temperament, parenting, and externalizing behavior in first grade: a test of the differential susceptibility hypothesis. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 49(2):124–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Belsky J, Pluess M (2009) Beyond diathesis stress: differential susceptibility to environmental influences. Psychol Bull 135(6):885PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Pluess M, Belsky J (2010) Differential susceptibility to parenting and quality child care. Dev Psychol 46(2):379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kiff CJ, Lengua LJ, Bush NR (2011) Temperament variation in sensitivity to parenting: predicting changes in depression and anxiety. J Abnorm Child Psychol 39(8):1199–1212PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hastings PD et al (2008) Parental socialization, vagal regulation, and preschoolers’ anxious difficulties: direct mothers and moderated fathers. Child Dev 79(1):45–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    McLaughlin EN, Stewart SH, Taylor S (2007) Childhood anxiety sensitivity index factors predict unique variance in DSM-IV anxiety disorder symptoms. Cogn Behav Ther 36(4):210–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Naragon-Gainey K (2010) Meta-analysis of the relations of anxiety sensitivity to the depressive and anxiety disorders. Psychol Bull 136(1):128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rabian B, Peterson RA, Richters J, Jensen PS (1993) Anxiety sensitivity among anxious children. J Clin Child Psychol 22(4):441–446Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Reiss S (1991) Expectancy model of fear, anxiety, and panic. Clin Psychol Rev 11(2):141–153Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Reiss S, McNally R (1985) Expectancy model of fear. In: Reiss S, Bootzin RR (eds) Theoretical issues in behavior therapy. Academic Press, New York, pp 107–121Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Reiss S, Peterson RA, Gursky DM, McNally RJ (1986) Anxiety sensitivity, anxiety frequency and the prediction of fearfulness. Behav Res Ther 24(1):1–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Muris P, Schmidt H, Merckelbach H, Schouten E (2001) Anxiety sensitivity in adolescents: factor structure and relationships to trait anxiety and symptoms of anxiety disorders and depression. Behav Res Ther 39(1):89–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Rodriguez BF, Bruce SE, Pagano ME, Spencer MA, Keller MB (2004) Factor structure and stability of the anxiety sensitivity index in a longitudinal study of anxiety disorder patients. Behav Res Ther 42(1):79–91PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Silverman WK, Fleisig W, Rabian B, Peterson RA (1991) Child anxiety sensitivity index. J Clin Child Psychol 20(2):162–168Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Weems CF, Hammond-Laurence K, Silverman WK, Ginsburg GS (1998) Testing the utility of the anxiety sensitivity construct in children and adolescents referred for anxiety disorders. J Clin Child Psychol 27(1):69–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Weems CF, Hammond-Laurence K, Silverman WK, Ferguson C (1997) The relation between anxiety sensitivity and depression in children and adolescents referred for anxiety. Behav Res Ther 35(10):961–966PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Taylor S, Koch WJ, Woody S, McLean P (1996) Anxiety sensitivity and depression: how are they related? J Abnorm Psychol 105(3):474PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Muris P, Merckelbach H, Meesters C (2001) Learning experiences and anxiety sensitivity in normal adolescents. J Psychopathol Behav Assess 23(4):279–283Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Watt MC, Stewart SH, Cox BJ (1998) A retrospective study of the learning history origins of anxiety sensitivity. Behav Res Ther 36(5):505–525PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Watt MC, Stewart SH (2000) Anxiety sensitivity mediates the relationships between childhood learning experiences and elevated hypochondriacal concerns in young adulthood. J Psychosom Res 49(2):107–118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Muris P, Meesters C (2004) Children’s somatization symptoms: correlations with trait anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and learning experiences. Psychol Rep 94(3c):1269–1275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Budinger MC, Drazdowski TK, Ginsburg GS (2013) Anxiety-promoting parenting behaviors: a comparison of anxious parents with and without social anxiety disorder. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 44(3):412–418PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Teetsel RN, Ginsburg GS, Drake KL (2014) Anxiety-promoting parenting behaviors: a comparison of anxious mothers and fathers. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 45(2):133–142PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Brady EU, Kendall PC (1992) Comorbidity of anxiety and depression in children and adolescents. Psychol Bull 111(2):244–255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Seligman LD, Ollendick TH (1998) Comorbidity of anxiety and depression in children and adolescents: an integrative review. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 1(2):125–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Insel T et al (2010) Research domain criteria (RDoC): toward a new classification framework for research on mental disorders. Am J Psychiatry 167(7):748–751PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Craske MG (2012) The R-DOC initiative: science and practice. Depress Anxiety 29(4):253–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Cole PM, Dennis TA (1998) Variations on a theme: culture and the meaning of socialization practices and child competence. Psychol Inq 9(4):276–278Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Julian TW, McKenry PC, McKelvey MW (1994) Cultural variations in parenting: perceptions of Caucasian, African-American, Hispanic, and Asian-American parents. Fam Relat 43(1):30–37Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Bulcroft RA, Carmody DC, Bulcroft KA (1996) Patterns of parental independence giving to adolescents: Variations by race, age, and gender of child. J Marriage Fam 58(4):866–883Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Fuligni AJ (1998) Authority, autonomy, and parent–adolescent conflict and cohesion: a study of adolescents from Mexican, Chinese, Filipino, and European backgrounds. Dev Psychol 34(4):782PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Cervantes CA (2002) Explanatory emotion talk in Mexican immigrant and Mexican American families. Hisp J Behav Sci 24(2):138–163Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Knight GP, Virdin LM, Roosa M (1994) Socialization and family correlates of mental health outcomes among Hispanic and Anglo American children: consideration of cross-ethnic scalar equivalence. Child Dev 65(1):212–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    MacPhee D, Fritz J, Miller-Heyl J (1996) Ethnic variations in personal social networks and parenting. Child Dev 67(6):3278–3295Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Varela RE, Sanchez-Sosa JJ, Biggs BK, Luis TM (2009) Parenting strategies and socio-cultural influences in childhood anxiety: Mexican, Latin American descent, and European American families. J Anxiety Disord 23(5):609–616PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Cole PM, Tan PZ (2007) Emotion socialization from a cultural perspective. In: Grusec J, Hastings P (eds) Handbook of socialization: theory and research. Guilford Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Coll CG et al (1996) An integrative model for the study of developmental competencies in minority children. Child Dev 67(5):1891–1914Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Luis TM, Varela RE, Moore KW (2008) Parenting practices and childhood anxiety reporting in Mexican, Mexican American, and European American families. J Anxiety Disord 22(6):1011–1020PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Varela RE et al (2004) Anxiety reporting and culturally associated interpretation biases and cognitive schemas: a comparison of Mexican, Mexican American, and European American families. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 33(2):237–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Escobar JI, Rubio-Stipec M, Canino G, Karno M (1989) Somatic Symptom Index (SSI): a new and abridged somatization construct. J Nerv Ment Dis 177(3):140–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Koss JD (1990) Somatization and somatic complaint syndromes among Hispanics: overview and ethnopsychological perspectives. Transcultural Psychiatry 27(5):5–29Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Silverman WA, Marie Anne (1996) Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule (ADIS-IV) Child and Parent Interview Schedules. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Angold A, Costello E, Farmer EM, Burns BJ, Erkanli A (1999) Impaired but undiagnosed. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 38(2):129–137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Silverman WK, Saavedra LM, Pina AA (2001) Test-retest reliability of anxiety symptoms and diagnoses with the anxiety disorders interview schedule for DSM-IV: child and parent versions. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 40(8):937–944PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    March JS, Amaya-Jackson L, Terry R, Costanzo P (1997) Posttraumatic symptomatology in children and adolescents after an industrial fire. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36(8):1080–1088PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    March JS, Parker JD, Sullivan K, Stallings P, Conners CK (1997) The Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC): factor structure, reliability, and validity. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36(4):554–565PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Rynn MA et al (2006) The psychometric properties of the MASC in a pediatric psychiatric sample. J Anxiety Disord 20(2):139–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Kovacs M (1985) The Children’s Depression, Inventory (CDI). Psychopharmacol Bull 21(4):995–998PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Smucker MR, Craighead WE, Craighead LW, Green BJ (1986) Normative and reliability data for the children’s depression inventory. J Abnorm Child Psychol 14(1):25–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Reynolds CR, Richmond BO (1979) Factor structure and construct validity of “what I think and feel”: the revised children’s manifest anxiety scale. J Pers Assess 43(3):281–283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Ollendick TH (1983) Reliability and validity of the Revised Fear Surgery Schedule for Children (FSSC-R). Behav Res Ther 21(6):685–692PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Alvarez de Lugo CI (2005) Children’s learning of anxiety sensitivity: a preliminary study using a sample of youths referred for anxiety disorders. Unpublished thesis, Florida International UniversityGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Ehlers A (1993) Somatic symptoms and panic attacks: a retrospective study of learning experiences. Behav Res Ther 31(3):269–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Ronan KR, Kendall PC, Rowe M (1994) Negative affectivity in children: development and validation of a self-statement questionnaire. Cognit Ther Res 18(6):509–528Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Laurent J, Catanzaro SJ, Joiner TE (2004) development and preliminary validation of the physiological hyperarousal scale for children. Psychol Assess 16(4):373–380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Laurent J et al (1999) A measure of positive and negative affect for children: scale development and preliminary validation. Psychol Assess 11(3):326Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    West SG, Finch JF, Curran PJ (1995) Structural equation models with nonnormal variables: problems and remedies. In: Hoyle R (ed) Structural equation modeling: concepts, issues, and applications. Sage Publications, Inc, Thousand Oaks, CAGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Anonymous (2011) IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 20.0. (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY)Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Cohen J, Cohen P, West SG, Aiken LS (2003) Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, Mahwah, NJGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Ginsburg GS, Schlossberg MC (2002) Family-based treatment of childhood anxiety disorders. Int Rev Psychiatry 14(2):143–154Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Ginsburg GS (2004) Anxiety prevention programs for youth: practical and theoretical considerations. Clinical Psychol 11(4):430–434Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Bertalanffy LV (1968) General system theory: Foundations, development, applications. Braziller, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Cicchetti D, Rogosch FA (1996) Equifinality and multifinality in developmental psychopathology. Dev Psychopathol 8(04):597–600Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Roy AK et al (2008) Attention bias toward threat in pediatric anxiety disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 47(10):1189–1196PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Waters AM, Henry J, Mogg K, Bradley BP, Pine DS (2010) Attentional bias towards angry faces in childhood anxiety disorders. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 41(2):158–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Barlow DH (2000) Unraveling the mysteries of anxiety and its disorders from the perspective of emotion theory. Am Psychol 55(11):1247–1263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Ayón C, Marsiglia FF, Bermudez-Parsai M (2010) Latino family mental health: exploring the role of discrimination and familismo. J Community Psychol 38(6):742–756PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Gamble WC, Modry-Mandell K (2008) Family relations and the adjustment of young children of Mexican descent: do family cultural values moderate these associations? Soc Dev 17(2):358–379Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Germán M, Gonzales NA, Dumka L (2009) Familism values as a protective factor for Mexican-origin adolescents exposed to deviant peers. J Early Adolesc 29(1):16–42PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Morcillo C et al (2011) Parental familism and antisocial behaviors: development, gender, and potential mechanisms. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 50(5):471–479PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Knight GP et al (2010) The Mexican American Cultural Values Scale for adolescents and adults. J Early Adolesc 30(3):444–481PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Sroufe LA, Rutter M (1984) The domain of developmental psychopathology. Child Dev 55(1):17–29Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Rapee RM (2002) The development and modification of temperamental risk for anxiety disorders: prevention of a lifetime of anxiety? Biol Psychiatry 52(10):947–957PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Chorpita BF, Albano AM, Barlow DH (1998) The structure of negative emotions in a clinical sample of children and adolescents. J Abnorm Psychol 107(1):74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Silverman WK, Weems CF (1999) Anxiety sensitivity in children. Anxiety sensitivity: theory, research, and treatment of the fear of anxiety. The LEA series in personality and clinical psychology. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, Mahwah, NJ, pp 239–268Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Laurent J, Schmidt NB, Catanzaro SJ, Joiner TE Jr, Kelley AM (1998) Factor structure of a measure of anxiety sensitivity in children. J Anxiety Disord 12(4):307–331PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Pina AA, Gonzales NA, Holly LE, Zerr AA, Wynne H (2013) Toward evidence-based assessment of ethnic minority youth. In: McLeod AJ-D BD, Ollendick T (eds) Diagnostic and Behavioral Assessment in Children and Adolescents: a Clinical Guide. Guilford, New York, pp 348–376Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Holly LE, Little M, Pina AA, Caterino LC (in press) Assessment of anxiety symptoms in school children: a cross-sex and ethnic examination. J Abnorm Child PsycholGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Varela RE, Sanchez-Sosa JJ, Biggs BK, Luis TM (2008) Anxiety symptoms and fears in Hispanic and European American children: cross-cultural measurement equivalence. J Psychopathol Behav Assess 30(2):132–145Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Pina AA, Silverman WK (2004) Clinical phenomenology, somatic symptoms, and distress in Hispanic/Latino and European American youths with anxiety disorders. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 33(2):227–236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Demo DH, Small SA, Savin-Williams RC (1987) Family relations and the self-esteem of adolescents and their parents. J Marriage Fam 49(4):705–715Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Tein J-Y, Roosa MW, Michaels M (1994) Agreement between parent and child reports on parental behaviors. J Marriage Fam 56(2):341–355Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Bögels SM, Melick MV (2004) The relationship between child-report, parent self-report, and partner report of perceived parental rearing behaviors and anxiety in children and parents. Pers Individ Dif 37(8):1583–1596Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychology, Prevention Research CenterArizona State UniversityTempeUSA

Personalised recommendations